Introduction
The aim of this webpage is to provide information about the pseudoscorpion fauna of Europe. Emphasis is on Northern European species and only some information is available on Southern European pseudoscorpions. This page contains descriptions and images of species which I have been able to obtain for photography, and hopefully the number of species will increase in time. This page is intended as an appetizer to the wonderful world of pseudoscorpions, and anyone who wants to know these animals better should explore the links and references at the bottom of the page.

Please note that I am not a pseudoscorpion expert, and my determinations have not been verified by others. Thus, this page may contain errors. If you question my determinations please let me know so I can take a second look at the specimen. If you possess live or alcohol conserved specimens of species not appearing here I would like to lend them for photography in order to improve this page. Pseudoscorpions change body form and colour when conserved, so I aim at having images of both live and preserved specimens. Images of live specimens provide the best basis for identifying live pseudoscorpions while images of preserved specimens enable me to show diagnostic details difficult to capture on live animals due to their small sizes and restless nature.
The pseudoscorpions
The taxon list used here is based on Harvey, M.S. (2013) which contains published data up to the end of 2011 (Pseudoscorpions of the World, version 3.0. Western Australian Museum, Perth). As new species are frequently described and species distribution updates occur this website is not updated with the latest knowledge. Some regions have no published records of species (Belarus, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City). In other regions the published records presumably cover only a fraction of the species that actually occur, e.g. only 33 species are listed for Russia.

The European pseudoscorpion fauna counts to 861 species in 73 genera and 16 families (Harvey 2013). These numbers include species and genera from Asian parts of Russia and Turkey (perhaps 20 species?). The fauna is much more diverse in the southern parts of Europe. The highest number of species is found in Italy (226) followed by Spain (196). Blick, T., Muster C. & Duchác, V. (2004) list 102 pseudoscorpion species for Central Europe. Species number decline to about 20 in southern Scandinavia (Beier, 1963). None, except a few introduced synanthropic species, are found at higher latitudes than ca. 65° N (Beier, 1963).

Pseudoscorpions are not easy to identify in the field due to small size (1-6 mm). Knowledge of their distribution and preferred habitat combined with visible characters (using a 20 x hand lens) and some experience will allow field identification of most species, at least in Northern Europe. Observing alcohol preserved specimens under the stereomicroscope allow the identification of perhaps all species. Important characters separating the species include whether tergites are divided or not, number of eyes, number of leg segments, outline of cephalothorax, position and number of grooves on cephalothorax and shape and number of body setae. Smaller but equally important characters include the position and number of accessory teeth on the inner margin of the pedipalpal movable finger, surface structure of the cuticle and shape of sex organs. Most important is the number and position of trichobothria on the pedipalps, on the legs (tarsus IV in particular) and on the posterior tergite and sternite segments. One should note that preserved specimens may look completely different from live specimens as colours fade in alcohol and the abdomen may change form.

Descriptions of families, genera, and species are at present incomplete. Click on thumbnails to view images in large size. By default only species with images is listed. It is possible to filter species by country by selecting desired country in drop down box.
Family: Chthoniidae (Chthoniid Pseudoscorpions)
Members are found in most of Europe except in the north. Many species are cave-dwellers.
Characters of family: Body length range from 1-2.5 mm. Tergites undivided. Cephalothorax with parallel sides or wider in front than at rear. Carapace with two pairs of eyes near lateral edge, and close to anterior margin, some species have eyes reduced and possess only one pair or lack eyes altogether. Chelicers large. Hand and fingers slender compared to species of most other pseudoscorpion families. Hand wide at basis and without a stalk. Legs I and II are 6-segmented (one-segmented tarsi), the much stronger legs III and IV are 7-segmented (two-segmented tarsi). Body and legs with simple setae. Femur 1 (basifemur) of leg IV is considerably shorter than Femur 2 (telofemur). An intercoxal tubercle is present in Northern and Central European genera, but is lacking in several Southern European genera. Intercoxal tubercles are only found in the Chthoniidae. It is a small remnant of a sternal plate between the coxae of legs III and IV. It carries two setae. The family is represented in Northern and Central Europe with two genera, which are separated by the number of coxae with special coxal setae "Coxaldornen" (Beier 1963). These differs morphologically from the normal, simple body setae. Mundochthonius possesses coxaldornen only on coxae II while Chthonius on both coxae II and III.
Genus: Chthonius C.L. Koch, 1843
Members of this genus are found in most of Europe with a northern limit in southern regions of Sweden and Norway. They are found under not too dry conditions in leaf litter, humus, moss, under stones and in caves. According to Greek Mythology Chthonius applies to the gods of the lower world, or the shades and to beings that are considered as earth-born.
Characters of genus: Carapace often clearly wider in front than at rear. With or without an epistome. The front margin of the carapace and epistome (if present) may be toothed. Usually with two pairs of eyes, but posterior pair may be reduced or eyes may lack altogether in cave-dwellers. Pedipalps with few setae, fingers with teeth of main row close together or widely separated. Coxae II and III with plumiform setae (Coxaldornen). The first 2-4 tergites with usually 2 pairs of setae, remaining tergites usually with 3 pairs of setae (many can be broken off!). Palpal tibia always short. Intercoxal tubercle present carrying two setae.
Chthonius absoloni Beier, 1938
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius boldorii Beier, 1934
Range: Austria, Croatia, Germany, Italy (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius caligatus Beier, 1938
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius cikolae Ćurčić and Rađa, 2010
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius dalmatinus Hadži, 1930
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius ellingseni Beier, 1928
Range: Austria, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Montenegro, Slovenia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius exarmatus Beier, 1939
Range: Croatia, Montenegro (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius insularis Beier, 1938
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius ischnocheles (Hermann, 1804) - Common Chthonid
Description: Cephalothorax brown-olive green, glossy, considerably wider in front than at rear and with small epistome (sometimes absent in males?). Furnished with 20 setae of which four are situated near the posterior margin of the carapace (many may have broken off, but small round holes reveal their former point of attachment). Two pairs of eyes about 2-3 diameters apart, anterior pair about one diameter from front margin of carapace. Chelicers reddish brown, large. Pedipalpal hand with scale-structured surface (other surfaces sometimes with less clear scale-structure). Hand without a dorsal depression. Pedipalpal fingers about 1.75 longer than hand. Teeth of fingers somewhat separated and with an backward angle, on movable finger teeth get distinctly smaller towards the base. Tergites reddish brown. Size: 1.6-2.5 mm. Habitat: Found in leaf litter in decidious, calcareous forests (beech in particular), in hollow beech and oak, in bird nests and other animal nests, under stones, and in upwash on forest meadows. Also sometimes found synantrophically in greenhouses, organic waste and similar conditions. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey (Harvey 2013). Distribution in Denmark: Local in Denmark, much commoner in the southeastern parts than in the northwestern parts. Usually found near the coast. Very few records from Jutland and Funen (including Langeland), most records are from Lolland, Møn, Zealand, and Bornholm (Thydsen Meinertz, 1962; ZMUC unpublished data).
Female, pedipalpal chela.
Female genitalia.
Female.
Male.
Male cephalothorax, distribution of setae.
Male genitalia.
Male, ventral view.
Male chelicerae.
Male pedipalpal chela.
Male, chelicers (as seen from below) with flagellum and serrula exterior.
Male, dorsal view of abdomen.
Chthonius jalzici Ćurčić, 1988
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius karamani Hadži, 1933
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius litoralis Hadži, 1933
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius magnificus Beier, 1938
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius occultus Beier, 1939
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius onaei Ćurčić, Dimitrijević, Radja, Ćurčić and Milinčić, 2010
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius orthodactylus (Leach, 1817) - Straight-fingered Chthonid
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Montenegro, Netherlands, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius radjai Ćurčić, 1988
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius raridentatus Hadži, 1930
Range: Croatia, Italy, Slovenia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius rhodochelatus Hadži, 1933
Range: Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Slovenia, Switzerland (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius rogatus Beier, 1938
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius simplex Beier, 1939
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius subterraneus Beier, 1931
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia, Hungary, Montenegro, Slovakia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius tetrachelatus (Preyssler, 1790) - Dimple-clawed Chthonid
Description: Entire animal yellow brown. Cephalothorax glossy, somewhat wider in front than at rear and without epistome. Furnished with 18 setae of which only two are situated in the posterior row slightly in front of the posterior margin of the carapace (many setae may have broken off, but small round holes reveal their former position). Two pairs of eyes about 1 diameter apart, anterior pair about half a diameter from front margin of carapace. Chelicers large. Pedipalpal hand with a dorsal depression. Pedipalpal fingers about 1.35 longer than hand. Teeth of fingers triangular and set widely apart. Size: 1.3-2.0 mm. Habitat: Found in greenhouses, organic waste, old gardens, quarries and waste ground, but also in a wide array of natural habitats, including coastal upwash, leaf litter in decidious forests, and under stones. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine (Harvey 2013). Distribution in Denmark: Local in Denmark, much commoner in the southeastern parts than in the northwestern parts. Very few records from Jutland and Funen, most records are from Lolland, Møn, Zealand, and Bornholm (Thydsen Meinertz, 1962; unpublished data ZMUC).
Male.
Male chelicers.
Male genitalia.
Male pedipalpal chela. Note dorsal depression in hand at base of fixed finger and widely separated teeth.
Male, note that there are only two setae at rear margin of cephalothorax (of which one is broken of).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Chthonius torakensis Ćurčić and Rađa, 2010
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Chthonius trebinjensis Beier, 1938
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Genus: Paraliochthonius Beier, 1956
Paraliochthonius singularis (Menozzi, 1924)
Range: Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Genus: Troglochthonius Beier, 1939
Troglochthonius doratodactylus Helversen, 1968
Range: Croatia, Italy (Harvey 2013).
Troglochthonius mirabilis Beier, 1939
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Family: Neobisiidae (Neobisiid Pseudoscorpions)
Species of the Neobisiidae are widely distributed in Europe. The best known pseudoscorpion in northern Europe, Neobisium carcinoides, is frequent in a wide array of habitats. It is probably the pseudoscorpion with the most northernly distribution, and is the sole species found in natural habitats in Iceland and the Faroe islands.
Characters of family: Body length range from 1.0-6.0 mm (Beier 1963). Tergites undivided. Cephalothorax without transverse grooves, rectangular or roughly square. Carapace with one or two pairs of eyes, a few cave-dwelling species have none. A small, more or less triangular process on the front margin of the carapace (epistome) is present in most species. Chelicers large, about half the length of the carapace. Pedipalps smooth or partly granulate. Only fixed finger with poison apparatus. Teeth of pedipalpal fingers closely set and uniformly sized. All tarsi two-segmented. Femora of leg I and II are 2-segmented and articulate, femoral segments of leg III and IV are not freely mobile, a vertical line indicates where the joints have become fixed (symphysis). The family is represented in Northern and Central Europe with four genera, which are separated by the shape of galea, number of eyes, and position and number of trichobothria on the fixed pedipalpal finger. Using external characters to determine sex of specimens is difficult for members of this family.
Genus: Insulocreagris Ćurčić, 1987
Insulocreagris regina Ćurčić, 1987
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Genus: Neobisium J. C. Chamberlin, 1930
Species rich genus mainly found in Europe. Most species prefer shade and some moisture, and are associated with litter and moss of forests and wetlands. Many species are cave-dwellers, particularly in the warmer regions of the distributional range.
Characters of genus: Medium to large sized pseudoscorpions with body lengths ranging from 1.5-6.0 mm (Beier 1963). Cephalothorax almost square or longer than broad. Two pairs of eyes or none, however only the posterior pair is reduced in a few cave-dwelling species. An often strongly protruding, more or less triangular epistome is present in many species. Pedipalpal femur longer than carapace (all species or most species?). Fixed and movable finger with 8 and 4 trichobothria, respectively.
Neobisium blothroides (Tömösváry, 1882)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium caecum Beier, 1939
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium carcinoides (Hermann, 1804) - Common Neobisid
Description: Glossy species. The cephalothorax and abdomen are olive brown, pedipalps are reddish-brown and the legs are light reddish-brown. Specimens with swollen abdomen may appear lighter and more reddish brown due to the larger surface of the light reddish brown pleural membranes relatively to the darker tergites in these specimens. The cephalothorax is longer than broad. Epistome rudimentary or absent. Two pairs of eyes present, the eyes being rather strongly convex. Distance between anterior and posterior eyes is about 0.5 diameter of an eye, and the distance between the anterior eyes and the front margin of the carapace is slightly less than one diameter. Fingers 1.3 times longer than the hand and rather curved (a helpful field character when using a 20x lens). Fixed finger of pedipalp with 53-57 closely set, evenly sized teeth (Beier 1963). Only the tip of the fixed finger curves strongly inward, the tip of which bears the duct from the poison glands. Body and legs are furnished with simple setae. Size: 1.7-3.0 mm. Habitat: Found in a very wide array of habitats dry or moist, also on high ground. Often very common in litter of deciduous and coniferous forests, under objects and in moss, including Sphagnum. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (Harvey 2013). Distribution in Denmark: Common throughout the country.
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Note phoretic mites.
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Neobisium carsicum Hadži, 1933
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium cephalonicum (Daday, 1888)
Range: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Turkey, Yugoslavia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium chaimweizmanni Ćurčić and Dimitrijević, 2004
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium dalmatinum Beier, 1938
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium dinaricum Hadži, 1933
Range: Croatia, Montenegro (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium distinctum (Beier, 1928)
Range: Croatia, Italy (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium doderoi (Simon, 1896)
Range: Albania, Austria, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium dolicodactylum (Canestrini, 1874)
Range: Austria, Croatia, Italy, Romania (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium elegans Beier, 1939
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium erythrodactylum (L. Koch, 1873)
Range: Austria, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey, Ukraine (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium fuscimanum (C.L. Koch, 1843)
Range: Albania, Austria, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium gentile Beier, 1939
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia, Montenegro (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium hadzii Beier, 1938
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium heros Beier, 1938
Range: Croatia, Montenegro (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium insulare Beier, 1938
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium lethaeum Beier, 1938
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium macrodactylum (Daday, 1888)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Montenegro, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium maderi Beier, 1938
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium mirkaci Ćurčić and Radja, 2010
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium montdori Ćurčić, Makarov, Radja, S.B. Ćurčić, N.B. Ćurčić and Pecelj, 2010
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium mosorense Ćurčić, Makarov, Radja, S.B. Ćurčić, N.B. Ćurčić and Pecelj, 2010
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium peruni Ćurčić, 1988
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium perunoides Ćurčić, Dimitrijević and Rađa, 2006
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium praecipuum (Simon, 1879)
Range: Croatia, France, Greece, Italy (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium pusillum Beier, 1939
Range: Croatia, Slovenia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium reimoseri (Beier, 1929)
Range: Croatia, Italy, Slovenia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium simargli Ćurčić, 1988
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium simile (L. Koch, 1873)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium spelaeum (Schiödte, 1847)
Range: Croatia, Italy, Slovenia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium speluncarium (Beier, 1928)
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium staudacheri Hadži, 1933
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium stribogi Ćurčić, 1988
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium stygium Beier, 1931
Range: Croatia, Slovenia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium svetovidi Ćurčić, 1988
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium svilajae Dimitrijević and Rađa, 2009
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium sylvaticum (C.L. Koch, 1835)
Range: Albania, Austria, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Montenegro, Moldova, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium usudi Ćurčić, 1988
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium vachoni Beier, 1939
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia, Montenegro (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium validum (L. Koch, 1873)
Range: Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Moldova, Turkey, Ukraine (Harvey 2013).
Neobisium velebiticum Beier, 1938
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Genus: Protoneobisium Ćurčić, 1988
Protoneobisium basilice Ćurčić, Dimitrijević, Radja and Radja, 2008
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Protoneobisium biocovense (G. Müller, 1931)
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Genus: Roncus L. Koch, 1873
Roncus almissae Ćurčić, Radja, S.B. Ćurčić and N.B. Ćurčić, 2010
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Roncus anophthalmus (Ellingsen, 1910)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Roncus dalmatinus Hadži, 1933
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Roncus diocletiani Ćurčić, Dimitrijević, Radja and Radja, 2008
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Roncus insularis Beier, 1938
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Roncus italicus (Simon, 1896)
Range: Croatia, Italy, Slovenia (Harvey 2013).
Roncus lubricus L. Koch, 1873 - Reddish Two-eyed Chelifer
Range: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine (Harvey 2013).
Roncus podaga Ćurčić, 1988
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Roncus pripegala Ćurčić, 1988
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Roncus stussineri (Simon, 1881)
Range: Croatia, Italy, Slovenia (Harvey 2013).
Roncus svilajae Dimitrijević and Rađa, 2009
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Roncus tenuis Hadži, 1933
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Roncus trojanicus Ćurčić, 1988
Range: Croatia (Harvey 2013).
Family: Garypinidae (Garypynid Pseudoscorpions)
Garypinids are found in warmer parts of the world, but not in northern and central Europe. Many species lives under tree bark (Harvey 2009). A few genera, such as Amblyolpium, Garypinus and Solinus, are found in southern Europe.
Characters of family: Garypinus and about 20 related genera of Garypininae were considered members of the Olpiidae until Judson (1992, 2005) argued that the group of genera deserved to be recognized as a separate family, Garypinidae. The majority of species possess strongly divided arolia on the tarsus of all legs (Harvey 2009).
Genus: Garypinus Daday 1888
In Europe just one species.
Characters of genus: Carapace longer than broad, glossy. Two pairs of well-developed eyes. Tergites differ in degree of division. Pedipalps strong, glossy with sparse setae.
Garypinus dimidiatus (L. Koch 1873)
Description: Carapace 1.3 times longer than broad and without transverse grooves. Tergites 1-4 undivided or partially divided, tergites 5-10 partially or fully divided, tergite 11 essentially undivided. Finger of about same length as hand excluding stalk. Size: 2.5-3.5 mm. Habitat: The species is found under stones and in leaf litter, sometimes in quite some numbers. I have found specimens in leaf litter of forests and olive plantations (in debris inside old, hollow olive trees) on Lefkas, Greece. Range: Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female carapace (note that are no transverse grooves).
Female abdomen (note that anterior tergites are undivided).
Female, note strongly divided arolia on the tarsus (all legs).
Female, venter.
Female, external genitalia weakly developed and indistinct.
Female, setae and trichobothria on posterior tergites (note that posterior tergite is undivided).
Male, indistinct genitalia.
Male.
Female legs.
Female pedipalp.
Female, galea and serrula exterior.
Male and female, size difference.
Family: Garypidae (Garypid Pseudoscorpions)
Genus: Garypus L. Koch, 1873
Garypus beauvoisii (Audouin, 1826)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia, Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Spain (Harvey 2013).
Family: Olpiidae (Olpiid Pseudoscorpions)
In Europe, species of this family are only found in the Mediterranean region. They are inhabitants of xeric habitats.
Characters of family: Members of this family are characterized by the shape of the cephalothorax which is longer than broad, usually parallel-sided but narrowed in front. Anterior margin straight. There are two pairs of eyes near anterior margen of carapace, the eyes are not set on ocular tubercles. Abdomens of alcohol preserved specimens are more or less parallel-sided, only slightly wider than the cephalothorax. Abdomens of live specimens can be pear-shaped and clearly wider than the cephalothorax if abdominal segments are contracted. Tergites and sternites undivided. Both movable and fixed finger possess a poison tooth distally. A further important character is the 1-2 trichobothria set on the basal half of pedipalpal femur. This is an apomorphic character of the superfamily Olpioidea which is only represented with the family Olpiidae in Europe.
Genus: Olpium L. Koch, 1873
Olpium pallipes (Lucas, 1849)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Spain (Harvey 2013).
Sex not determined.
Sex not determined.
Sex not determined.
Sex not determined.
Family: Cheiridiidae (Cheiridiid Pseudoscorpions)
Genus: Cheiridium Menge, 1855
Cheiridium museorum (Leach, 1817) - Book Scorpion
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Female?.
Family: Geogarypidae (Geogarypid Pseudoscorpions)
Genus: Geogarypus Chamberlin, 1930?
Geogarypus minor (L. Koch, 1873)
Range: Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Spain, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Family: Withiidae (Withiid Pseudoscorpions)
Genus: Withius Kew, 1911
Withius piger (Simon, 1878) - Lazy Chelifer
Range: Austria, Croatia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Family: Cheliferidae (Cheliferid Pseudoscorpions)
Genus: Chelifer Geoffroy, 1762
Chelifer cancroides (Linnaeus, 1758) - House False-scorpion
Range: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey (Harvey 2013). Distribution in Denmark: Apparently rather rare, but few records may relate to the species being overlooked. Known from the Copenhagen area, Jægerspris, Tåsinge, and Anholt according to Thydsen Meinertz (1962). Recent records from Åbenrå Harbour (2009, ZMUC data) and two localities near Copenhagen: Frederiksberg (2007) and Brønshøj (2011) according to the website "Danmarks Fugle og Natur".
Female, indistinct keeled tergites.
Female.
Female.
Female genitalia.
Female pedipalpal chela.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Dactylochelifer Beier, 1932
Dactylochelifer latreillei (Leach, 1817) - Marram Grass Chelifer
Range: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine (Harvey 2013).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Hysterochelifer Chamberlin, 1932?
Hysterochelifer tuberculatus (Lucas, 1849)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Montenegro, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Genus: Rhacochelifer Beier, 1932
Rhacochelifer corcyrensis (Beier, 1930)
Range: Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Rhacochelifer peculiaris (L. Koch, 1873)
Range: Austria, Croatia, Cyprus, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Yugoslavia (Harvey 2013).
Female?.
Female?.
Female? Note stout, fairly cylindrical hand with short fingers.
Female? (Possibly R. maculatus - difficult to identify).
Family: Chernetidae (Chernetid Pseudoscorpions)
Genus: Allochernes Beier, 1932
Allochernes powelli (Kew, 1916) - Powell's Chernes
Range: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Genus: Chernes Menge, 1855
Chernes cimicoides (Fabricius, 1793) - Common Tree-chernes
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Habitat.
Habitat.
Habitat.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female, cuticle with honey-comb patterning.
Female genitalia.
Genus: Dendrochernes Beier, 1932
Dendrochernes cyrneus (L. Koch, 1873) - Large Tree-chernes
Range: Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine (Harvey 2013).
Female, note indistinct eyes.
Female genitalia.
Female, venter.
Female.
Female, arrangement of setae on tergites 2-8.
Female, pedipalp.
Female, cuticle structure of pedipalpal femur.
Female, retrolateral view of robust hand and fingers of left pedipalp.
Female, position of stout trichobothrium on tarsus IV.
Female, tip of the movable cheliceral finger with galea.
Female, trichobothria on posterior tergite and sternite.
female, unevenly sized accessory teeth on the inner margin of the movable finger.
Female. Live specimen on trunk of old dead Pinus sylvestris. Photo Arne Fjellberg.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Dinocheirus J. C. Chamberlin, 1929
Eyes absent.
Dinocheirus panzeri (C.L. Koch, 1837) - Nest Chernes
At least in Denmark this species is identifiable in the field (with a 18-20x lens) by the following combination of characters: reddish brown cephalothorax and pedipalps, honeybrown tergites separated by very pale pleural membranes and the presence of one pair of trichobothria each on tergite XI and sternite XI. Size: 2.1-2.6 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
.
.
.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male?.
Male? Venter.
Male? Note one pair of trichobothria each on sternite XI and tergite XI.
Genus: Lamprochernes Tömösváry, 1882
Lamprochernes chyzeri (Tömösváry, 1882) - Chyzer's Shining Claw
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Montenegro, Norway, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Genus: Pselaphochernes Beier, 1932
Pselaphochernes litoralis Beier, 1956
Range: Croatia, France, Italy (Harvey 2013).
Family: Atemnidae (Atemnid Pseudoscorpions)
Genus: Atemnus Canestrini, 1883?
Atemnus politus (Simon, 1878)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine (Harvey 2013).
Literature
Agnarsson, I. (1998). Íslenskar langfaetlur og drekar. Fjölrit Náttúrufraedistofnunar 35: 1-34.
Andersen, M. (1987). Mosskorpionen Lamprochernes nodosus (Schrank, 1761) i Danmark (Pseudoscorpiones). Entomologiske Meddelelser 55: 23-25.
Beier, M. (1963). Ordnung Pseudoscorpionidea (Afterskorpione). In Bestimmungsbücher zur Bodenfauna Europas, vol. 1. Akademie-Verlag: Berlin.
Beier, M. (1932). Pseudoscorpionidea I. Subord. Chthoniinea et Neobisiinea. Tierreich 57: i-xx, 1-258.
Beier, M. (1932). Pseudoscorpionidea II. Subord. Cheliferinea. Tierreich 58: i-xxi, 1-294.
Blick, T., Muster C. & Ducháč, V. (2004). Checkliste der Pseudoskorpione Mitteleuropas. Checklist of the pseudoscorpions of Central Europe. (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones). Version 1. Oktober 2004. - Internet: http://www.AraGes.de/checklist.html#2004_Pseudoscorpiones.
Drogla, R. & Lippold, K. (2004). Zur Kenntnis der Pseudoskorpion-Fauna von Ostdeutschland. Arachnol. Mitt. 27/28: 1-54. (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones)
Gärdenfors, U. & Wilander, P. (1992). Sveriges klokrypare med nyckel till arterna. [Swedish pseudoscorpions with key to the species]. Ent. Tidskr. 113: 20-35. Mora. Sweden. ISSN 0013-886x.
Hansen, H.J. (1884). Arthrogastra Danica: en monographisk fremstilling af de i Danmark levende Meiere og Mosskorpioner med bidrag til sidstnaevnte underordens systematik. In Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, vol. (3) 14: 491-554. Thieles Bogtrykkeri: Kjøbenhavn.
Harvey, M.S. (1992). The phylogeny and classification of the Pseudoscorpionida (Chelicerata: Arachnida). Invertebrate Taxonomy 6: 1373-1435.
Harvey, M.S. (2009). Pseudoscorpions of the World, version 3.0. Western Australian Museum, Perth. http://www.museum.wa.gov.au/catalogues/pseudoscorpions/
Holmen, M. & Scharff, N. (2008). Stellas mosskorpion, Anthrenocherens stellae Lohmander, 1939 - status i Danmark for en ny art på habitatdirektivet (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones). [Anthrenocherens stellae Lohmander, 1939 status in Denmark for a new species on the EU Habitats Directive (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones)]. Entomologiske Meddelelser 76(1):55-67.
Judson, M. & Legg, G. (1996). Discovery of the pseudoscorpion Larca larta (Garypoidea, Larcidae) in Britain. Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc, 10 (6), 205-210.
Judson, M.L.I. (2005). Baltic amber fossil of Garypinus electri Beier provides first evidence of phoresy in the pseudoscorpion family Garypinidae (Arachnida: Chelonethi). In Logunov, D.V. and Penney, D. (eds), European Arachnology 2003 (Proceedings of the 21st European Colloquium of Arachnology, St.-Petersburg, 4-9 August 2003): 127-131. KMK Scientific Press Ltd: Moscow.
Judson, M.L.I. (1992). African Chelonethi. Studies on the Systematics, Biogeography and Natural History of African Pseudoscorpions (Arachnida). Ph.D. thesis, Department of Pure and Applied Biology. University of Leeds. Leeds.
Legg, G. & Jones, R.E. (1988). Pseudoscorpions (Arthropoda, Arachnida) : Keys and notes for the identification of the species. Synopses British Fauna, (new ser.) 40 :1-159 . E .J . Bill & Dr. W. Backhuys, Leiden.
Meinertz, N.T (1962). Mosskorpioner og mejere. Danmarks Fauna No. 67, pp 1-193. Publisher: Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening by G.E.C. Gads Forlag, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Meinertz, N.T. (1964). Beiträge zur Verbreitung der Pseudoscorpioniden in Dänemark. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i København 126: 387-402.
Nielsen, B.O. & Toft, S. (1989). Undersøgelser over leddyrfaunaen i Sepstrup Sande. Zoologisk Laboratorium, Aarhus Universitet; rapport til Skov- og Naturstyrelsen.
Nørgaard, E. (1971). Spindlere. Danmarks Dyreverden (1), pp 211-296. Published by Rosenkilde & Bagger, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Sandhall, Å & Almquist, S. (1981). Edderkopper, mejere mider m.fl. Naturguide i farver om edderkoppernes, mejernes, midernes og andre spindleres udseende, udvikling, levevis og adfærd, pp 1-93. Danish edition by Leif Lyneborg. Publisher: P. Haase & Søns Forlag, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Weygoldt, P. (1969). The Biology of Pseudoscorpions. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 145 p.
Links
Checklist of the pseudoscorpions of Central Europe. Version 1. Oktober 2004
Chelifer.com
Danmarks Fugle og Natur - Felthåndbogen (Stellas mosskorpion)
Forum mitteleuropäischer Spinnen. Sonstige Spinnentiere bestimmen
Key to Dutch pseudoscorpions
Nachweiskarten der Spinnentiere Deutschlands (distribution maps of German pseudoscorpions)
Norske mosskorpioner (Pseudoscorpiones)
Pseudoscorpion (Wikipedia)
Pseudoscorpion species in the ZMUC collection
Pseudoscorpions of the World
The Arachnology Home Page, Pseudoscorpion links
The Pseudoscorpions of Europe
- filtered for Croatia
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2014 Jørgen Lissner