Introduction
The aim of this webpage is to provide information about the pseudoscorpion fauna of Europe. Emphasis is on Northern European species and only some information is available on Southern European pseudoscorpions. This page contains descriptions and images of species which I have been able to obtain for photography, and hopefully the number of species will increase in time. This page is intended as an appetizer to the wonderful world of pseudoscorpions, and anyone who wants to know these animals better should explore the links and references at the bottom of the page.

Please note that I am not a pseudoscorpion expert, and my determinations have not been verified by others. Thus, this page may contain errors. If you question my determinations please let me know so I can take a second look at the specimen. If you possess live or alcohol conserved specimens of species not appearing here I would like to lend them for photography in order to improve this page. Pseudoscorpions change body form and colour when conserved, so I aim at having images of both live and preserved specimens. Images of live specimens provide the best basis for identifying live pseudoscorpions while images of preserved specimens enable me to show diagnostic details difficult to capture on live animals due to their small sizes and restless nature.
The pseudoscorpions
The taxon list used here is based on Harvey, M.S. (2013) which contains published data up to the end of 2011 (Pseudoscorpions of the World, version 3.0. Western Australian Museum, Perth). As new species are frequently described and species distribution updates occur this website is not updated with the latest knowledge. Some regions have no published records of species (Belarus, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City). In other regions the published records presumably cover only a fraction of the species that actually occur, e.g. only 33 species are listed for Russia.

The European pseudoscorpion fauna counts to 861 species in 73 genera and 16 families (Harvey 2013). These numbers include species and genera from Asian parts of Russia and Turkey (perhaps 20 species?). The fauna is much more diverse in the southern parts of Europe. The highest number of species is found in Italy (226) followed by Spain (196). Blick, T., Muster C. & Duchác, V. (2004) list 102 pseudoscorpion species for Central Europe. Species number decline to about 20 in southern Scandinavia (Beier, 1963). None, except a few introduced synanthropic species, are found at higher latitudes than ca. 65° N (Beier, 1963).

Pseudoscorpions are not easy to identify in the field due to small size (1-6 mm). Knowledge of their distribution and preferred habitat combined with visible characters (using a 20 x hand lens) and some experience will allow field identification of most species, at least in Northern Europe. Observing alcohol preserved specimens under the stereomicroscope allow the identification of perhaps all species. Important characters separating the species include whether tergites are divided or not, number of eyes, number of leg segments, outline of cephalothorax, position and number of grooves on cephalothorax and shape and number of body setae. Smaller but equally important characters include the position and number of accessory teeth on the inner margin of the pedipalpal movable finger, surface structure of the cuticle and shape of sex organs. Most important is the number and position of trichobothria on the pedipalps, on the legs (tarsus IV in particular) and on the posterior tergite and sternite segments. One should note that preserved specimens may look completely different from live specimens as colours fade in alcohol and the abdomen may change form.

Descriptions of families, genera, and species are at present incomplete. Click on thumbnails to view images in large size. By default only species with images is listed. It is possible to filter species by country by selecting desired country in drop down box.
Family: Chthoniidae (Chthoniid Pseudoscorpions)
Members are found in most of Europe except in the north. Many species are cave-dwellers.
Characters of family: Body length range from 1-2.5 mm. Tergites undivided. Cephalothorax with parallel sides or wider in front than at rear. Carapace with two pairs of eyes near lateral edge, and close to anterior margin, some species have eyes reduced and possess only one pair or lack eyes altogether. Chelicers large. Hand and fingers slender compared to species of most other pseudoscorpion families. Hand wide at basis and without a stalk. Legs I and II are 6-segmented (one-segmented tarsi), the much stronger legs III and IV are 7-segmented (two-segmented tarsi). Body and legs with simple setae. Femur 1 (basifemur) of leg IV is considerably shorter than Femur 2 (telofemur). An intercoxal tubercle is present in Northern and Central European genera, but is lacking in several Southern European genera. Intercoxal tubercles are only found in the Chthoniidae. It is a small remnant of a sternal plate between the coxae of legs III and IV. It carries two setae. The family is represented in Northern and Central Europe with two genera, which are separated by the number of coxae with special coxal setae "Coxaldornen" (Beier 1963). These differs morphologically from the normal, simple body setae. Mundochthonius possesses coxaldornen only on coxae II while Chthonius on both coxae II and III.
This family is represented in Europe with 238 species in 6 genera (Harvey 2013). European genera (number of species in parenthesis): Chthonius (208), Mundochthonius (7), Paraliochthonius (11), Spelyngochthonius (6), Troglochthonius (2), Tyrannochthonius (1).
Genus: Chthonius C.L. Koch, 1843
Members of this genus are found in most of Europe with a northern limit in southern regions of Sweden and Norway. They are found under not too dry conditions in leaf litter, humus, moss, under stones and in caves. According to Greek Mythology Chthonius applies to the gods of the lower world, or the shades and to beings that are considered as earth-born.
Characters of genus: Carapace often clearly wider in front than at rear. With or without an epistome. The front margin of the carapace and epistome (if present) may be toothed. Usually with two pairs of eyes, but posterior pair may be reduced or eyes may lack altogether in cave-dwellers. Pedipalps with few setae, fingers with teeth of main row close together or widely separated. Coxae II and III with plumiform setae (Coxaldornen). The first 2-4 tergites with usually 2 pairs of setae, remaining tergites usually with 3 pairs of setae (many can be broken off!). Palpal tibia always short. Intercoxal tubercle present carrying two setae.
There are 208 European species (Harvey, 2013): Chthonius abnormis, C. absoloni, C. aegatensis, C. agazzii, C. aguileraorum, C. alpicola, C. amatei, C. anatolicus, C. apollinis, C. apulicus, C. argirocastronis, C. asturiensis, C. balazuci, C. balearicus, C. bellesi, C. bidentatus, C. bogovinae, C. boldorii, C. bolivari, C. brandmayri, C. cabreriensis, C. caligatus, C. caoduroi, C. caprai, C. carinthiacus, C. cassolai, C. catalonicus, C. cavernarum, C. cavernicola, C. cavicola, C. cavophilus, C. cebenicus, C. cephalotes, C. cerberus, C. chamberlini, C. chius, C. cikolae, C. comottii, C. concii, C. corcyraeus, C. corsicus, C. creticus, C. cryptus, C. dacnodes, C. daedaleus, C. dalmatinus, C. decoui, C. delmastroi, C. densedentatus, C. diophthalmus, C. distinguendus, C. doderoi, C. dubius, C. elbanus, C. ellingseni, C. elongatus, C. euganeus, C. exarmatus, C. fuscimanus, C. gasparoi, C. genuensis, C. gestroi, C. gibbus, C. girgentiensis, C. giustii, C. gjirokastri, C. globifer, C. globocicae, C. gracilimanus, C. graecus, C. grafittii, C. guglielmii, C. halberti, C. herbarii, C. heterodactylus, C. heurtaultae, C. hiberus, C. hispanus, C. hungaricus, C. ilvensis, C. imperator, C. insularis, C. ischnocheles, C. ischnocheloides, C. italicus, C. iugoslavicus, C. jalzici, C. jonicus, C. jugorum, C. karamani, C. karamanianus, C. kemza, C. kewi, C. knesemani, C. kupalo, C. lanzai, C. latidentatus, C. leoi, C. leruthi, C. lesnik, C. lessiniensis, C. ligusticus, C. lindbergi, C. litoralis, C. lucanus, C. lucifugus, C. lychnidis, C. macedonicus, C. machadoi, C. magnificus, C. mahnerti, C. malatestai, C. maltensis, C. mariolae, C. mayi, C. mayorali, C. mazaurici, C. microphthalmus, C. microtuberculatus, C. mingazzinii, C. minotaurus, C. minous, C. minutus, C. mirabilis, C. monicae, C. motasi, C. multidentatus, C. nanus, C. nerjaensis, C. nidicola, C. nudipes, C. occultus, C. ognjankae, C. ohridanus, C. onaei, C. orthodactyloides, C. orthodactylus, C. pancici, C. paolettii, C. parmensis, C. persimilis, C. perun, C. petrochilosi, C. pieltaini, C. pinai, C. pivai, C. platakisi, C. poeninus, C. polychaetus, C. ponsi, C. ponticoides, C. ponticus, C. porevidi, C. poseidonis, C. prove, C. purgo, C. pusillus, C. pygmaeus, C. pyrenaicus, C. radigost, C. radjai, C. raridentatus, C. remyi, C. ressli, C. rhodochelatus, C. rimicola, C. rogatus, C. rogoi, C. romanicus, C. ruffoi, C. ruizporteroi, C. samius, C. sardous, C. schmalfussi, C. scythicus, C. sendrai, C. serbicus, C. sestasi, C. setosus, C. shelkovnikovi, C. siculus, C. simplex, C. siscoensis, C. spelaeophilus, C. stammeri, C. stevanovici, C. strinatii, C. submontanus, C. subterraneus, C. tenuis, C. tetrachelatus, C. thaleri, C. thessalus, C. torakensis, C. trebinjensis, C. troglobius, C. troglodites, C. troglophilus, C. tuberculatus, C. tzanoudakisi, C. vachoni, C. vandeli, C. ventalloi, C. verai, C. vid, C. vodan, C. zmaj, C. zoiai.
Chthonius ischnocheles (Hermann, 1804) - Common Chthonid
Description: Cephalothorax brown-olive green, glossy, considerably wider in front than at rear and with small epistome (sometimes absent in males?). Furnished with 20 setae of which four are situated near the posterior margin of the carapace (many may have broken off, but small round holes reveal their former point of attachment). Two pairs of eyes about 2-3 diameters apart, anterior pair about one diameter from front margin of carapace. Chelicers reddish brown, large. Pedipalpal hand with scale-structured surface (other surfaces sometimes with less clear scale-structure). Hand without a dorsal depression. Pedipalpal fingers about 1.75 longer than hand. Teeth of fingers somewhat separated and with an backward angle, on movable finger teeth get distinctly smaller towards the base. Tergites reddish brown. Size: 1.6-2.5 mm. Habitat: Found in leaf litter in decidious, calcareous forests (beech in particular), in hollow beech and oak, in bird nests and other animal nests, under stones, and in upwash on forest meadows. Also sometimes found synantrophically in greenhouses, organic waste and similar conditions. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey (Harvey 2013). Distribution in Denmark: Local in Denmark, much commoner in the southeastern parts than in the northwestern parts. Usually found near the coast. Very few records from Jutland and Funen (including Langeland), most records are from Lolland, Møn, Zealand, and Bornholm (Thydsen Meinertz, 1962; ZMUC unpublished data).
Male chelicerae.
Female, pedipalpal chela.
Male, dorsal view of abdomen.
Male pedipalpal chela.
Male, ventral view.
Male genitalia.
Male cephalothorax, distribution of setae.
Male.
Female.
Female genitalia.
Male, chelicers (as seen from below) with flagellum and serrula exterior.
Chthonius tetrachelatus (Preyssler, 1790) - Dimple-clawed Chthonid
Description: Entire animal yellow brown. Cephalothorax glossy, somewhat wider in front than at rear and without epistome. Furnished with 18 setae of which only two are situated in the posterior row slightly in front of the posterior margin of the carapace (many setae may have broken off, but small round holes reveal their former position). Two pairs of eyes about 1 diameter apart, anterior pair about half a diameter from front margin of carapace. Chelicers large. Pedipalpal hand with a dorsal depression. Pedipalpal fingers about 1.35 longer than hand. Teeth of fingers triangular and set widely apart. Size: 1.3-2.0 mm. Habitat: Found in greenhouses, organic waste, old gardens, quarries and waste ground, but also in a wide array of natural habitats, including coastal upwash, leaf litter in decidious forests, and under stones. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine (Harvey 2013). Distribution in Denmark: Local in Denmark, much commoner in the southeastern parts than in the northwestern parts. Very few records from Jutland and Funen, most records are from Lolland, Møn, Zealand, and Bornholm (Thydsen Meinertz, 1962; unpublished data ZMUC).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male chelicers.
Male genitalia.
Male pedipalpal chela. Note dorsal depression in hand at base of fixed finger and widely separated teeth.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male, note that there are only two setae at rear margin of cephalothorax (of which one is broken of).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Paraliochthonius Beier, 1956
There are 11 European species (Harvey, 2013): Paraliochthonius barrancoi, P. canariensis, P. cavalensis, P. curvidigitatus, P. hoestlandti, P. martini, P. mirus, P. setiger, P. singularis, P. superstes, P. tenebrarum.
Paraliochthonius singularis (Menozzi, 1924)
Range: Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Family: Neobisiidae (Neobisiid Pseudoscorpions)
Species of the Neobisiidae are widely distributed in Europe. The best known pseudoscorpion in northern Europe, Neobisium carcinoides, is frequent in a wide array of habitats. It is probably the pseudoscorpion with the most northernly distribution, and is the sole species found in natural habitats in Iceland and the Faroe islands.
Characters of family: Body length range from 1.0-6.0 mm (Beier 1963). Tergites undivided. Cephalothorax without transverse grooves, rectangular or roughly square. Carapace with one or two pairs of eyes, a few cave-dwelling species have none. A small, more or less triangular process on the front margin of the carapace (epistome) is present in most species. Chelicers large, about half the length of the carapace. Pedipalps smooth or partly granulate. Only fixed finger with poison apparatus. Teeth of pedipalpal fingers closely set and uniformly sized. All tarsi two-segmented. Femora of leg I and II are 2-segmented and articulate, femoral segments of leg III and IV are not freely mobile, a vertical line indicates where the joints have become fixed (symphysis). The family is represented in Northern and Central Europe with four genera, which are separated by the shape of galea, number of eyes, and position and number of trichobothria on the fixed pedipalpal finger. Using external characters to determine sex of specimens is difficult for members of this family.
This family is represented in Europe with 431 species in 15 genera (Harvey 2013). European genera (number of species in parenthesis): Acanthocreagris (36), Balkanoroncus (3), Bisetocreagris (2), Ernstmayria (2), Halobisium (1), Insulocreagris (2), Microbisium (6), Neobisium (224), Occitanobisium (2), Orientocreagris (1), Paedobisium (2), Protoneobisium (2), Roncobisium (2), Roncocreagris (19), Roncus (127).
Genus: Microbisium J. C. Chamberlin, 1930
A species poor genus. Members are found at ground level in moss and leaf litter in both moist and dry conditions.
Characters of genus: Medium sized pseudoscorpions with body lengths ranging from 1.4-2.4 mm (Beier 1963). Cephalothorax almost square or somewhat longer than broad. Four eyes. A small triangular epistome is present. Pedipalps smooth, as long as or shorter than the body. Pedipalpal femur shorter than carapace. Fixed and movable finger with 7 and 3 trichobothria, respectively.
There are 6 European species (Harvey, 2013): Microbisium brevifemoratum, M. brevipalpe, M. fagetum, M. manicatum, M. suecicum, M. zariquieyi.
Microbisium brevifemoratum (Ellingsen, 1903) - Bog Chelifer
Description: Glossy species. The cephalothorax is brown, pedipalps are reddish-brown, the abdomen is yellow-brown and the legs are whitish yellow. The cephalothorax is longer than broad. Two pairs of eyes. Distance between anterior and posterior eyes about 0.5 diameter of an eye, the distance between the anterior eyes and the front margin of the carapace is slightly more than one diameter. Fingers and hand relatively uncurved. They are rather short and thus appears robust. Fingers of the same length as the hand. Fixed finger of pedipalp with 40-42 closely set evenly sized teeth (Thydsen Meinertz 1962, Beier 1963). Tips of both fingers curve inwards at an angle perpendicular to the axis of the fingers. Body and legs are furnished with simple setae. Size: 1.6-2.4 mm. Habitat: Within mats of Sphagnum in drier parts of Sphagnum bogs. Range: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland (Harvey 2013). Distribution in Denmark: Apparently known only from three localities in Denmark. Hans Lohmander found the species in a Sphagnum bog near Brahetrolleborg, Funen (Thydsen Meinertz, 1962). Very likely this bog is Nybo Mose as this is the only Sphagnum bog near Brahetrolleborg. Nielsen & Toft (1989) report Microbisium specimens from a Sphagnum bog at Sepstrup Sande. Although not identified to species level, they undoubdetly belong to brevifemoratum as judged by the habitat. Specimens have also been found in a Sphagnum bog at Lake Salten Langsø (own collection data). Here it occurs in low numbers and is difficult to find. The scattered occurrence points to a relict distribution in Denmark, as also indicated by co-occurring, rare spider species: Clubiona norvegica, Robertus ungulatus, Hypselistes jacksoni, Minicia marginella, and Carorita limnaea.
Female?.
Female?.
Female?.
Female?.
Female?.
Genus: Neobisium J. C. Chamberlin, 1930
Species rich genus mainly found in Europe. Most species prefer shade and some moisture, and are associated with litter and moss of forests and wetlands. Many species are cave-dwellers, particularly in the warmer regions of the distributional range.
Characters of genus: Medium to large sized pseudoscorpions with body lengths ranging from 1.5-6.0 mm (Beier 1963). Cephalothorax almost square or longer than broad. Two pairs of eyes or none, however only the posterior pair is reduced in a few cave-dwelling species. An often strongly protruding, more or less triangular epistome is present in many species. Pedipalpal femur longer than carapace (all species or most species?). Fixed and movable finger with 8 and 4 trichobothria, respectively.
There are 224 European species (Harvey, 2013): Neobisium abeillei, N. absoloni, N. actuarium, N. aelleni, N. agnolettii, N. alae, N. albanicum, N. albanorum, N. alticola, N. anaisae, N. anatolicum, N. apuanicum, N. auberti, N. aueri, N. babinzub, N. babusnicae, N. balazuci, N. battonii, N. beieri, N. bernardi, N. beroni, N. bessoni, N. biharicum, N. blothroides, N. bolivari, N. boneti, N. bosnicum, N. boui, N. bozidarcurcici, N. breuili, N. brevidigitatum, N. brevipes, N. bucegicum, N. bulgaricum, N. caecum, N. caporiaccoi, N. carcinoides, N. carinthiacum, N. carnae, N. carpaticum, N. carpenteri, N. carsicum, N. casalei, N. cavernarum, N. cephalonicum, N. cerrutii, N. cervelloi, N. chaimweizmanni, N. chironomum, N. closanicum, N. coiffaiti, N. corcyraeum, N. crassifemoratum, N. creticum, N. cristatum, N. dalmatinum, N. davidbengurioni, N. delphinaticum, N. deltschevi, N. deschmanni, N. dinaricum, N. distinctum, N. doderoi, N. dolicodactylum, N. dolomiticum, N. elegans, N. epirense, N. erythrodactylum, N. fiscelli, N. fuscimanum, N. gaditanum, N. galeatum, N. gentile, N. georgecastriotae, N. geronense, N. gineti, N. goldameirae, N. golemanskyi, N. golovatchi, N. gomezi, N. gracile, N. gracilipalpe, N. granulatum, N. granulosum, N. hadzii, N. hellenum, N. helveticum, N. henroti, N. hermanni, N. heros, N. hians, N. hiberum, N. hypochthon, N. imbecillum, N. improcerum, N. inaequale, N. incertum, N. infernum, N. insulare, N. intermedium, N. intractabile, N. ischyrum, N. jeanneli, N. juberthiei, N. jugorum, N. karamani, N. kobachidzei, N. korabense, N. kosswigi, N. kwartirnikovi, N. labinskyi, N. latens, N. leruthi, N. lethaeum, N. ligusticum, N. longidigitatum, N. lulense, N. macrodactylum, N. maderi, N. mahnerti, N. maksimtodorovici, N. marcchagalli, N. maritimum, N. maroccanum, N. martae, N. maxbeieri, N. maxvachoni, N. mendelssohni, N. minimum, N. minutum, N. mirkaci, N. monasterii, N. montdori, N. montisageli, N. moreoticum, N. mosorense, N. navaricum, N. nemorense, N. ninae, N. nivale, N. nonidezi, N. noricum, N. occultum, N. odysseum, N. oenotricum, N. ohridanum, N. osellai, N. pacei, N. pangaeum, N. parasimile, N. patrizii, N. paucedentatum, N. pauperculum, N. peloponnesiacum, N. peruni, N. perunoides, N. phaeacum, N. phineum, N. phitosi, N. piquerae, N. polonicum, N. praecipuum, N. primitivum, N. princeps, N. pusillum, N. pyrenaicum, N. rajkodimitrijevici, N. reductum, N. reimoseri, N. reitteri, N. remyi, N. ressli, N. rhodium, N. robustum, N. rodrigoi, N. ruffoi, N. samniticum, N. sardoum, N. sbordonii, N. schawalleri, N. schenkeli, N. seminudum, N. settei, N. simargli, N. simile, N. simoni, N. simonioides, N. slovacum, N. spelaeum, N. speleophilum, N. speluncarium, N. spilianum, N. stankovici, N. staudacheri, N. stitkovense, N. strausaki, N. stribogi, N. stygium, N. sublaeve, N. svetovidi, N. svilajae, N. sylvaticum, N. tantaleum, N. tarae, N. temniskovae, N. tenebrarum, N. tenuipalpe, N. theisianum, N. torrei, N. trentinum, N. tuzetae, N. tzarsamueli, N. umbratile, N. usudi, N. vachoni, N. validum, N. vasconicum, N. velebiticum, N. ventalloi, N. vilcekii, N. vjetrenicae, N. vladimirpantici, N. yozgati, N. zoiai.
Neobisium carcinoides (Hermann, 1804) - Common Neobisid
Description: Glossy species. The cephalothorax and abdomen are olive brown, pedipalps are reddish-brown and the legs are light reddish-brown. Specimens with swollen abdomen may appear lighter and more reddish brown due to the larger surface of the light reddish brown pleural membranes relatively to the darker tergites in these specimens. The cephalothorax is longer than broad. Epistome rudimentary or absent. Two pairs of eyes present, the eyes being rather strongly convex. Distance between anterior and posterior eyes is about 0.5 diameter of an eye, and the distance between the anterior eyes and the front margin of the carapace is slightly less than one diameter. Fingers 1.3 times longer than the hand and rather curved (a helpful field character when using a 20x lens). Fixed finger of pedipalp with 53-57 closely set, evenly sized teeth (Beier 1963). Only the tip of the fixed finger curves strongly inward, the tip of which bears the duct from the poison glands. Body and legs are furnished with simple setae. Size: 1.7-3.0 mm. Habitat: Found in a very wide array of habitats dry or moist, also on high ground. Often very common in litter of deciduous and coniferous forests, under objects and in moss, including Sphagnum. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (Harvey 2013). Distribution in Denmark: Common throughout the country.
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Note phoretic mites.
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Family: Garypinidae (Garypynid Pseudoscorpions)
Garypinids are found in warmer parts of the world, but not in northern and central Europe. Many species lives under tree bark (Harvey 2009). A few genera, such as Amblyolpium, Garypinus and Solinus, are found in southern Europe.
Characters of family: Garypinus and about 20 related genera of Garypininae were considered members of the Olpiidae until Judson (1992, 2005) argued that the group of genera deserved to be recognized as a separate family, Garypinidae. The majority of species possess strongly divided arolia on the tarsus of all legs (Harvey 2009).
This family is represented in Europe with 8 species in 3 genera (Harvey 2013). European genera (number of species in parenthesis): Amblyolpium (4), Garypinus (2), Solinus (2).
Genus: Garypinus Daday 1888
In Europe just one species.
Characters of genus: Carapace longer than broad, glossy. Two pairs of well-developed eyes. Tergites differ in degree of division. Pedipalps strong, glossy with sparse setae.
There are 2 European species (Harvey, 2013): Garypinus asper, G. dimidiatus.
Garypinus dimidiatus (L. Koch 1873)
Description: Carapace 1.3 times longer than broad and without transverse grooves. Tergites 1-4 undivided or partially divided, tergites 5-10 partially or fully divided, tergite 11 essentially undivided. Finger of about same length as hand excluding stalk. Size: 2.5-3.5 mm. Habitat: The species is found under stones and in leaf litter, sometimes in quite some numbers. I have found specimens in leaf litter of forests and olive plantations (in debris inside old, hollow olive trees) on Lefkas, Greece. Range: Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Female, note strongly divided arolia on the tarsus (all legs).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdomen (note that anterior tergites are undivided).
Male and female, size difference.
Female, venter.
Female, external genitalia weakly developed and indistinct.
Female, setae and trichobothria on posterior tergites (note that posterior tergite is undivided).
Male, indistinct genitalia.
Male.
Female legs.
Female pedipalp.
Female, galea and serrula exterior.
Female carapace (note that are no transverse grooves).
Family: Olpiidae (Olpiid Pseudoscorpions)
In Europe, species of this family are only found in the Mediterranean region. They are inhabitants of xeric habitats.
Characters of family: Members of this family are characterized by the shape of the cephalothorax which is longer than broad, usually parallel-sided but narrowed in front. Anterior margin straight. There are two pairs of eyes near anterior margen of carapace, the eyes are not set on ocular tubercles. Abdomens of alcohol preserved specimens are more or less parallel-sided, only slightly wider than the cephalothorax. Abdomens of live specimens can be pear-shaped and clearly wider than the cephalothorax if abdominal segments are contracted. Tergites and sternites undivided. Both movable and fixed finger possess a poison tooth distally. A further important character is the 1-2 trichobothria set on the basal half of pedipalpal femur. This is an apomorphic character of the superfamily Olpioidea which is only represented with the family Olpiidae in Europe.
This family is represented in Europe with 21 species in 7 genera (Harvey 2013). European genera (number of species in parenthesis): Calocheiridius (3), Calocheirus (4), Cardiolpium (2), Halominniza (1), Horus (1), Minniza (7), Olpium (3).
Genus: Calocheirus Chamberlin, 1930
There are 4 European species (Harvey, 2013): Calocheirus canariensis, C. gigas, C. mirus, C. tenerifae.
Calocheirus canariensis (Beier, 1970)
Range: Spain (Harvey 2013).
Sex not determined.
Sex not determined.
Sex not determined.
Sex not determined.
Genus: Minniza Simon, 1881
In Europe confined to arid areas of the Mediterranean.
Characters of genus: Elongate pseudoscorpions which may appear wormlike, particularly when conserved in alcohol. Cephalothorax 1.5 to 2 times longer than broad with two more or less distinct transverse grooves. Pedipalps relatively short compared to body length. Tergites undivided, weakly sclerotized with 4-6 marginal setae.
There are 7 European species (Harvey, 2013): Minniza algerica, M. babylonica, M. deserticola, M. graeca, M. iberica, M. lindbergi, M. vermis.
Minniza graeca (L. Koch, 1873)
Range: Cyprus, Greece (Harvey 2013).
Female?.
Female?.
Female?.
Female?.
Genus: Olpium L. Koch, 1873
There are 3 European species (Harvey, 2013): Olpium canariense, O. kochi, O. pallipes.
Olpium pallipes (Lucas, 1849)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Spain (Harvey 2013).
Sex not determined.
Sex not determined.
Sex not determined.
Sex not determined.
Family: Larcidae (Larcid Pseudoscorpions)
Characters of family: Harvey (1992) performed a cladistic analysis of the Pseudoscorpionida and revised the classification. He judged that two genera of the Garypidae were sufficiently different, and they were transferred to the newly erected Larcidae. This family is characterized by having the anal plate surrounded by a desclerotized region, and by having a row of setae along posterior margin of sternites III and IV (Harvey 1992). Larcidae is represented by one genus, Larca, in Europe with six species. Larca lata, is rather rare but widespread in Northern and Central Europe. Larca bosselaersi is known from a cave in Crete, Greece. Larca fortunata, L. hispanica, and L. lucentina are known from Spain. Larca italica is known from an Italian cave.
This family is represented in Europe with 1 species in one genus (Harvey 2013). European genus (number of species in parenthesis): Larca (1).
Genus: Larca J. C. Chamberlin, 1930
Characters of genus: Cephalothorax narrowed in front and with two transverse grooves. Species of the genus are characterized by having just two trichobothria on the moveable chelal finger (Harvey 2009). Species of the closely related Archeolarca have three or four trichobothria on the movable chelal finger, but they are only found in North America.
There are 1 European species (Harvey, 2013): Larca bosselaersi, L. fortunata, L. hispanica, L. italica, L. lata, L. lucentina.
Larca lata (Hansen, 1884) - Oak-tree Chelifer
Description: Light brown species with indistinct body setae. Cephalothorax roughly triangular. Two pairs of rather closely situated eyes which seem reduced (appear as light bulges under the body cuticle, eye lenses not present?). Abdomen pear-shaped, considerable wider than cephalothorax, and with 10 visible tergites when viewed from above. Anterior tergite and the two posterior ones undivided. All legs with seven segments. Legs III and IV are having femur 1 (basifemur) considerably shorter than femur 2 (telofemur). Arolia of legs much longer than tarsal claw, this is not the case in any other northern or Central European pseudoscorpion. Size: 1.7-2.1 mm. Habitat: In northern Europe (Sweden, Denmark and England) the species has been found in old hollow or decaying oak (Gärdenfors & Wilander 1992, ZMUC unpublished data). According to Judson & Legg (1996) all Larca species are xerophilic being restricted to dry, dusty habitats. Larca lata is primarily being found in old mouldering parts of living oak trees (Judson & Legg 1996). Here it is found among mould, dry leaves or in nests of various animals such as wasps, mice, ants as well as in bat guano. It has also been found in a few other habitats (see Judson & Legg (1996) for a review). Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, Latvia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Sweden (Harvey 2013). Distribution in Denmark: Uncommon but perhaps overlooked. Has been collected on Lolland (Krenkerup Haveskov Forest), Zealand (Jægerspris Nordskov Forest and Dyrehaven (deer park with old trees near Copenhagen) and on Funen (Langensø) according to Thydsen Meinertz (1962) and ZMUC upublished data. Apparently absent from the northwestern and coldest part of Denmark. The species was first found in Denmark by Hans Jakob Hansen who described the species in 1884.
Female, anal plate surrounded by a desclerotized region.
Female, ventral view.
Female, note two pairs of eyes.
Female pedipalpal chela.
Female genitals.
Female, this species has all legs 7-segmented.
Female.
Female cephalothorax.
Male.
Female, note that the Arolium is much longer than the tarsal claw.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female, note that tergite 9 and 10 are undivided.
Family: Cheiridiidae (Cheiridiid Pseudoscorpions)
This family is represented in Europe with 4 species in 2 genera (Harvey 2013). European genera (number of species in parenthesis): Apocheiridium (3), Cheiridium (1).
Genus: Cheiridium Menge, 1855
There is 1 European species (Harvey 2013): Cheiridium museorum.
Cheiridium museorum (Leach, 1817) - Book Scorpion
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Female?.
Family: Cheliferidae (Cheliferid Pseudoscorpions)
This family is represented in Europe with 55 species in 10 genera (Harvey 2013). European genera (number of species in parenthesis): Beierochelifer (3), Canarichelifer (1), Cheirochelifer (3), Chelifer (1), Dactylochelifer (17), Ellingsenius (1), Hysterochelifer (6), Mesochelifer (3), Pseudorhacochelifer (4), Rhacochelifer (16).
Genus: Chelifer Geoffroy, 1762
There is 1 European species (Harvey 2013): Chelifer cancroides.
Chelifer cancroides (Linnaeus, 1758) - House False-scorpion
Range: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey (Harvey 2013). Distribution in Denmark: Apparently rather rare, but few records may relate to the species being overlooked. Known from the Copenhagen area, Jægerspris, Tåsinge, and Anholt according to Thydsen Meinertz (1962). Recent records from Åbenrå Harbour (2009, ZMUC data) and two localities near Copenhagen: Frederiksberg (2007) and Brønshøj (2011) according to the website "Danmarks Fugle og Natur".
Female.
Female, indistinct keeled tergites.
Female.
Female.
Female genitalia.
Female pedipalpal chela.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Dactylochelifer Beier, 1932
There are 17 European species (Harvey, 2013): Dactylochelifer amurensis, D. anatolicus, D. balearicus, D. besucheti, D. falsus, D. gracilis, D. gruberi, D. infuscatus, D. intermedius, D. kussariensis, D. latreillei, D. marlausicola, D. maroccanus, D. mongolicola, D. ressli, D. scaurus, D. scheuerni.
Dactylochelifer latreillei (Leach, 1817) - Marram Grass Chelifer
Range: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine (Harvey 2013).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Rhacochelifer Beier, 1932
There are 16 European species (Harvey, 2013): Rhacochelifer balcanicus, R. corcyrensis, R. disjunctus, R. euboicus, R. gracilimanus, R. henschii, R. hoggarensis, R. lobipes, R. maculatus, R. peculiaris, R. pinicola, R. quadrimaculatus, R. samai, R. schawalleri, R. tauricus, R. tingitanus.
Rhacochelifer corcyrensis (Beier, 1930)
Range: Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Male.
Rhacochelifer disjunctus (L. Koch, 1873)
Range: France, Italy, Portugal, Spain (Harvey 2013).
Female.
Rhacochelifer maculatus (L. Koch, 1873)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, France, Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Serbia, Spain (Harvey 2013).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female?.
Female?.
Female.
Rhacochelifer peculiaris (L. Koch, 1873)
Range: Austria, Croatia, Cyprus, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Yugoslavia (Harvey 2013).
Female? (Possibly R. maculatus - difficult to identify).
Female? Note stout, fairly cylindrical hand with short fingers.
Female?.
Female?.
Family: Chernetidae (Chernetid Pseudoscorpions)
This family is represented in Europe with 62 species in 12 genera (Harvey 2013). European genera (number of species in parenthesis): Allochernes (17), Americhernes (1), Anthrenochernes (1), Chernes (11), Dendrochernes (1), Dinocheirus (1), Hesperochernes (1), Lamprochernes (6), Lasiochernes (8), Megachernes (1), Orochernes (1), Pselaphochernes (12), Wyochernes (1).
Genus: Allochernes Beier, 1932
There are 17 European species (Harvey, 2013): Allochernes aetnaeus, A. balcanicus, A. bulgaricus, A. contarinii, A. deceuninckorum, A. longepilosus, A. mahnerti, A. masi, A. microti, A. peregrinus, A. pityusensis, A. powelli, A. rhodius, A. siciliensis, A. solarii, A. wideri phaleratus, A. wideri wideri.
Allochernes wideri wideri (C.L. Koch, 1843) - Wider's Tree-chernes
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Female.
Female, Tarsus IV.
Male.
Male genitalia.
Male pedipalpal chela.
Female, arrangement of setae on tergites.
Genus: Anthrenochernes Lohmander, 1939
There is 1 European species (Harvey 2013): Anthrenochernes stellae.
Anthrenochernes stellae Lohmander, 1939 - Stella's Chernes
Range: Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Poland, Sweden (Harvey 2013).
.
.
Female, note large gap between curved fingers, equalling almost a diameter of a finger.
Female.
Female, accessory tooth on the inner margin on movable finger.
Female, position of trichobothrium on Tarsus IV (no trichobothrium on Tibia IV).
Female, arrangement of trichobothria on posterior tergite and sternite.
.
Female.
Female, position of fairly long abdominal setae.
Female genitalia.
.
Female, transverse grooves of cephalothorax.
Genus: Chernes Menge, 1855
There are 11 European species (Harvey, 2013): Chernes beieri, C. cavicola, C. cimicoides, C. graecus, C. hahnii, C. iberus, C. montigenus, C. nigrimanus, C. rhodinus, C. similis, C. vicinus.
Chernes cimicoides (Fabricius, 1793) - Common Tree-chernes
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Male.
Female genitalia.
Male.
Female.
Habitat.
Female, cuticle with honey-comb patterning.
Female.
Habitat.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Habitat.
Female.
Chernes nigrimanus (Ellingsen, 1897)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Norway, Poland, Sweden (Harvey 2013).
Female genitalia.
Male.
Male genitalia.
Male, arrangement of two pairs of trichobothria on posterior sternite.
Female, note absence of a trichobothrium on tarsus IV.
Female, note two accessory teeth on inner margin of movable finger (specimen 1).
Female, note two accessory teeth on inner margin of movable finger (specimen 2).
Female, indistinct hairing of tergites.
Female.
Female.
Male, arrangement of trichobothria on posterior tergite.
Genus: Dendrochernes Beier, 1932
There is 1 European species (Harvey 2013): Dendrochernes cyrneus.
Dendrochernes cyrneus (L. Koch, 1873) - Large Tree-chernes
Range: Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine (Harvey 2013).
Female.
Female, cuticle structure of pedipalpal femur.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female, trichobothria on posterior tergite and sternite.
Female, arrangement of setae on tergites 2-8.
Female genitalia.
female, unevenly sized accessory teeth on the inner margin of the movable finger.
Female, note indistinct eyes.
Female, tip of the movable cheliceral finger with galea.
Female, position of stout trichobothrium on tarsus IV.
Female, retrolateral view of robust hand and fingers of left pedipalp.
Female, pedipalp.
Female.
Female, venter.
Female. Live specimen on trunk of old dead Pinus sylvestris. Photo Arne Fjellberg.
Genus: Dinocheirus J. C. Chamberlin, 1929
Eyes absent.
There is 1 European species (Harvey 2013): Dinocheirus panzeri.
Dinocheirus panzeri (C.L. Koch, 1837) - Nest Chernes
At least in Denmark this species is identifiable in the field (with a 18-20x lens) by the following combination of characters: reddish brown cephalothorax and pedipalps, honeybrown tergites separated by very pale pleural membranes and the presence of one pair of trichobothria each on tergite XI and sternite XI. Size: 2.1-2.6 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Male? Venter.
.
.
.
Male?.
Male? Note one pair of trichobothria each on sternite XI and tergite XI.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Lamprochernes Tömösváry, 1882
There are 6 European species (Harvey, 2013): Lamprochernes chyzeri, L. leptaleus, L. minor, L. moreoticus, L. nodosus, L. savignyi.
Lamprochernes nodosus (Schrank, 1803) - Knotty Shining Claw
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey (Harvey 2013).
Male.
Male genitalia.
Male, note the long and pointed setae on the tergites (fine distal teeth are only visible using a microscope).
Male, tegite og sternite XI each with two pairs of trichobothria.
Male, note rounded lower part of pedipalpal trochanter.
Male, position of trichobothria on leg IV.
Male pedipalpal chela.
Genus: Pselaphochernes Beier, 1932
There are 12 European species (Harvey, 2013): Pselaphochernes anachoreta, P. balcanicus, P. balearicus, P. dubius, P. hadzii, P. iberomontanus, P. italicus, P. lacertosus, P. litoralis, P. scorpioides, P. setiger, P. turcicus.
Pselaphochernes dubius (O.P.-Cambridge, 1892) - Small Chernes
Range: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden (Harvey 2013).
Male genitalia.
Male.
Male, hand and fingers of pedipalp.
Male.
Female, trichobothrium on Tarsus IV absent.
Female.
Female.
Female, transverse grooves on the cephalothorax, the posterior one indistinct .
Male, one accessory tooth on inner margin of movable finger.
Female, arrangement of trichobothria on posterior tergite and sternite.
Female genitalia.
Female pedipalp.
Pselaphochernes scorpioides (Hermann, 1804) - Compost Chernes
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine (Harvey 2013).
Male?.
Male?.
Male?.
Female.
Female, hairing of tergite.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male?.
Literature
Agnarsson, I. (1998). Íslenskar langfaetlur og drekar. Fjölrit Náttúrufraedistofnunar 35: 1-34.
Andersen, M. (1987). Mosskorpionen Lamprochernes nodosus (Schrank, 1761) i Danmark (Pseudoscorpiones). Entomologiske Meddelelser 55: 23-25.
Beier, M. (1963). Ordnung Pseudoscorpionidea (Afterskorpione). In Bestimmungsbücher zur Bodenfauna Europas, vol. 1. Akademie-Verlag: Berlin.
Beier, M. (1932). Pseudoscorpionidea I. Subord. Chthoniinea et Neobisiinea. Tierreich 57: i-xx, 1-258.
Beier, M. (1932). Pseudoscorpionidea II. Subord. Cheliferinea. Tierreich 58: i-xxi, 1-294.
Blick, T., Muster C. & Ducháč, V. (2004). Checkliste der Pseudoskorpione Mitteleuropas. Checklist of the pseudoscorpions of Central Europe. (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones). Version 1. Oktober 2004. - Internet: http://www.AraGes.de/checklist.html#2004_Pseudoscorpiones.
Drogla, R. & Lippold, K. (2004). Zur Kenntnis der Pseudoskorpion-Fauna von Ostdeutschland. Arachnol. Mitt. 27/28: 1-54. (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones)
Gärdenfors, U. & Wilander, P. (1992). Sveriges klokrypare med nyckel till arterna. [Swedish pseudoscorpions with key to the species]. Ent. Tidskr. 113: 20-35. Mora. Sweden. ISSN 0013-886x.
Hansen, H.J. (1884). Arthrogastra Danica: en monographisk fremstilling af de i Danmark levende Meiere og Mosskorpioner med bidrag til sidstnaevnte underordens systematik. In Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, vol. (3) 14: 491-554. Thieles Bogtrykkeri: Kjøbenhavn.
Harvey, M.S. (1992). The phylogeny and classification of the Pseudoscorpionida (Chelicerata: Arachnida). Invertebrate Taxonomy 6: 1373-1435.
Harvey, M.S. (2009). Pseudoscorpions of the World, version 3.0. Western Australian Museum, Perth. http://www.museum.wa.gov.au/catalogues/pseudoscorpions/
Holmen, M. & Scharff, N. (2008). Stellas mosskorpion, Anthrenocherens stellae Lohmander, 1939 - status i Danmark for en ny art på habitatdirektivet (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones). [Anthrenocherens stellae Lohmander, 1939 status in Denmark for a new species on the EU Habitats Directive (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones)]. Entomologiske Meddelelser 76(1):55-67.
Judson, M. & Legg, G. (1996). Discovery of the pseudoscorpion Larca larta (Garypoidea, Larcidae) in Britain. Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc, 10 (6), 205-210.
Judson, M.L.I. (2005). Baltic amber fossil of Garypinus electri Beier provides first evidence of phoresy in the pseudoscorpion family Garypinidae (Arachnida: Chelonethi). In Logunov, D.V. and Penney, D. (eds), European Arachnology 2003 (Proceedings of the 21st European Colloquium of Arachnology, St.-Petersburg, 4-9 August 2003): 127-131. KMK Scientific Press Ltd: Moscow.
Judson, M.L.I. (1992). African Chelonethi. Studies on the Systematics, Biogeography and Natural History of African Pseudoscorpions (Arachnida). Ph.D. thesis, Department of Pure and Applied Biology. University of Leeds. Leeds.
Legg, G. & Jones, R.E. (1988). Pseudoscorpions (Arthropoda, Arachnida) : Keys and notes for the identification of the species. Synopses British Fauna, (new ser.) 40 :1-159 . E .J . Bill & Dr. W. Backhuys, Leiden.
Meinertz, N.T (1962). Mosskorpioner og mejere. Danmarks Fauna No. 67, pp 1-193. Publisher: Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening by G.E.C. Gads Forlag, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Meinertz, N.T. (1964). Beiträge zur Verbreitung der Pseudoscorpioniden in Dänemark. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i København 126: 387-402.
Nielsen, B.O. & Toft, S. (1989). Undersøgelser over leddyrfaunaen i Sepstrup Sande. Zoologisk Laboratorium, Aarhus Universitet; rapport til Skov- og Naturstyrelsen.
Nørgaard, E. (1971). Spindlere. Danmarks Dyreverden (1), pp 211-296. Published by Rosenkilde & Bagger, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Sandhall, Å & Almquist, S. (1981). Edderkopper, mejere mider m.fl. Naturguide i farver om edderkoppernes, mejernes, midernes og andre spindleres udseende, udvikling, levevis og adfærd, pp 1-93. Danish edition by Leif Lyneborg. Publisher: P. Haase & Søns Forlag, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Weygoldt, P. (1969). The Biology of Pseudoscorpions. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 145 p.
Links
Checklist of the pseudoscorpions of Central Europe. Version 1. Oktober 2004
Chelifer.com
Danmarks Fugle og Natur - Felthåndbogen (Stellas mosskorpion)
Forum mitteleuropäischer Spinnen. Sonstige Spinnentiere bestimmen
Key to Dutch pseudoscorpions
Nachweiskarten der Spinnentiere Deutschlands (distribution maps of German pseudoscorpions)
Norske mosskorpioner (Pseudoscorpiones)
Pseudoscorpion (Wikipedia)
Pseudoscorpion species in the ZMUC collection
Pseudoscorpions of the World
The Arachnology Home Page, Pseudoscorpion links
The Pseudoscorpions of Europe
- only species with images listed
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2014 Jørgen Lissner