Introduction
The aim of this webpage is to provide information about the spider fauna of Greenland. In time this site is planned to contain images and species descriptions of as many species as possible - equalling the number of species I am able to acquire for photography. Images shown on this page may not be based on Greenlandic specimens but spiders collected or observed elsewhere in their distributional range.
The spiders
The Greenlandic spider fauna comprises 75 species belonging to 50 genera and 10 families (Yuri Masurik, in preparation). A few of these species are doubtful members of the fauna since they have only been found once which may indicate a chance introduction rather than presence of a breeding population. The Greenlandic spider fauna is thus relatively poor. The main factors responsible presumably include the isolated position of the island, the relatively short period since last glaciation, and the prevailing cold climate. By and large Greenland is an icecap surrounded by a narrow strip of land. At some places glaciers reaching the sea interrupt the land and provide barriers for spiders to spread. Undoubtedly, Greenland can support more species, especially in the subarctic regions of the south. But not enough time has elapsed or some other factors have prevented more species to colonize this area. Surprisingly few man-induced introductions of species have taken place in Greenland if any at all. Salticus scenius and Tegenaria domestica have only been found I Greenland on one occasion each. Even the cosmopolitan Pholcus phalangioides found in houses all over the world have no known populations in Greenland. The species Ohlertidion lundbecki is endemic to Greenland. The species was until recently considered a subspecies of Theridion ohlerti (Theridion ohlerti lundbecki) but has now been transferred to a new genus and elevated to species (Wunderlich, 2008).
Description of Greenland
Greenland is a mountanious country located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Greenland is the world's largest island and covers 2,166,086 km2 of which 1,755,637 km2 is covered by ice leaving 410.449 km2 ice free. The coastline measure 44.087 km and the island stretch 2,650 km from Cape Farewell (59°46' N) to Coffey Club Island (83°40' N). This small island off the northern coast is only 707 km from the geographic North Pole. At the widest point Greenland is ca. 1,000 km wide. The highest point is Gunnbjørns Fjeld reaching 3,694 metres. The climate is arctic to subarctic with cool summers and cold winters. During summer temperatures are higher inland than at the outer coast. Only in the valleys of the southern regions of Greenland does the mean temperature of the warmest month exceed +10°C. Annual precipitation varies from over 1,400 mm in South Greenland to less than 200 mm in the northern arctic deserts. The vegetation is dominatad by dwarf-shrub heath less than ½ m in height. Willow copse can be found where the ground is moister such as along streams. Alder copse and forest like birch copse (up to 8 m high) is only found in southwest or south Greenland. Herb-slopes are found on south exposed slopes where sufficient water supports a more luxuriant plant community. At higher elevations snowpatches, fell field and wind-swept barrens can be found but only few spider species thrive here. Steppe and grassland slopes can be seen in the continental interior. These are often dry and warm and the fauna is relatively rich. At many places the lowland is characterised by fens and marshes often covering vast expanses of land. They are dominated by mosses, grasses, and sedges and contain spider species adapted to damp conditions. Most of Greenlands coast is rocky but at some places there are sandy beaches and saltmarshes supporting spiders adapted to these conditions.
I am indebted to Helle Jørgensbye, Nuuk, Greenland and Kaj Nissen, Hobro, Denmark for kindly providing specimens for photography.
Below follows a list of Greenlandic spider species ordered alphabetically by family. Descriptions of families, genera, and species are at present incomplete but additions will be made whenever time allows. It is possible to click on thumbnails to view images in large size.
Family: Araneidae (Typical Orb Weavers)
The Araneidae is the world’s third largest spider family with more than 2850 species described in more than 165 genera. They range in size from small to large (2-30 mm body size). The species occupy a wide range of habitats and are found in terrestrial ecosystems all over the world with the exception of some high arctic areas, islands and archipelagos. Most species build an orb web with sticky spiral threads but some genera in the tropics have reduced or abandoned web building altogether. The webs are built in the herb layer, in or between bushes and trees and on buildings and possibly in many other places. Some species stay in the hub of the web sometimes camouflaged by a stabilimentum. Other species use a retreat as a hiding place or stay outside the web, in both cases holding a signal thread to detect when prey become tangled in the web. When males become adult they leave their web in search of females. Great care is taken when approaching the female web so the usually larger female does not eat the male. I many species courtship is undertaken by plucking and jerking the female web to suppress predatory behaviour of the female and to have her express mating behaviour instead. The four species known from Greenland are distributed in the south or southwest with the smallest species, Hypsosinga groenlandica, reaching as far north as the island of Disko. This species also differ from the three larger species by using no retreat and by having the orb web very close to the ground. The four species are rather variable in colour markings but nevertheless fairly easily identified to species. In the field orb web may be very noticeable especially when covered by dew. The web of the water orb weaver Tetragnatha extensa, which co-occur with all Greenlandic orb weaver species could at first glance be mistaken for an orb web. However, the orb web of Tetragnatha extensa differ by having a hole in the centre. Also, Tetragnatha extensa differ from the Greenlandic orb weavers by its elongate abdomen and by nearly always residing in the web unless when it drops to the ground due to disturbance.
Characters of family: The araneids belong to the group of ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. The eyes are arranged in 2 rows of 4 with the lateral eyes widely separated from the medial eyes. The carapace is often flat with a distinct head region. The chelicers are strong having a lateral condyle (boss at base of chelicer). Labium is wider than long and rebordered (swollen at anterior edge). Maxilla (basal part of palp used for chewing prey) are widest anteriorly. Legs with 3 claws and often furnished with strong spines and trichobothria on all segments except tarsi. Often legs are clearly annulated. The abdomen is usually globose and nearly always with species-specific often bright colour patterns. The abdomens of some species are round-shouldered while others have humps, the latter species often referred to as angulate orb weavers. Some tropical species have large outgrows on the abdomen. A colulus (midline appendage or tubercle) is present in front of the anterior spinnerets. The tracheal spiracle is situated close to spinnerets. Araneids belong to the entelegyne group of spiders often having large and complex epigynes sometimes with a large flexible scapus (finger-, tongue-, or lip-like projection arising in the midline of the epigyne). The male palp is complex.
Genus: Araneus Clerck, 1757 - Angulate and round-shouldered orb weavers
This genus contains one Greenlandic species which is the largest spider occurring in Greenland with females reaching 15 mm. The species belong to the round-shouldered group within the genus as there are no abdominal shoulder humps.
Characters of genus: Small to large large spiders ranging from 2.5 mm to at least 25 mm body length. Posterior medial eyes slightly larger than the rest and separated by one diameter from each other. Anterior medials separated by 2-3 diameters. Height of clypeus ca. 1.5 diameter of one anterior medial eye. Some species have well-developed shoulder humps while other are round-shouldered or possess traces of humps such as Araneus diadematus. There is some sexual dimorphism with males smaller and much slimmer than females, especially gravid ones. Epigyne with large scape originating from base of epigyne. Male palp complex, the shape of embolus and terminal apophysis being the most important characters for separating the species (Almquist 2005).
Araneus groenlandicola (Strand, 1906)
Orb webs are placed fairly low less than one m above ground level. The spider hides in a domeshaped retreat made of papery silk. Size: Female 9-15 mm; male 6-8 mm. Maturity: Juveniles emerge in spring from the egg cocoon in which they have hibernated. Adult in late summer? Habitat: Moist grasslands often near water. Range: S and SW Greenland north to 64°08 N. Nearctic (USA, Canada, Greenland).
Genus: Hypsosinga Ausserer, 1871
The single Greenlandic species may at first glance resemble a Theriidid such as Steatoda due to its abdomal markings and glossy appearance.
Characters of genus: The legs are short with combined length of patella and tibia I hardly as long as carapace. Posterior medial eyes larger than the other eyes.
Hypsosinga groenlandica Simon, 1889
The species constructs an orb web in low vegetation. Size: Female 4-5 mm; male 3-3.5 mm. Maturity: Juveniles emerge in spring from the egg cocoon in which they have hibernated. Adult in late summer? Habitat: The web is built in low vegetation such as grass close to ground. Range: S, SW and SE. Nearctic, low arctic-alpine.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Genus: Larinioides Caporiacco, 1934
Larinioides cornutus (Clerck, 1757) - Furrow orbweaver
The female constructs a bell-shaped retreat of whitish silk. Orb webs are placed fairly low less than one m above ground level in grass vegetation just like Araneus groenlandicola. Size: Female 6-9 mm; male 5-8 mm. Maturity: Juveniles emerge in spring from the egg cocoon in which they have hibernated. Adult in late summer? Habitat: Moist grassland always near water. Range: S and southernmost SW. Circumpolar, lowarctic-temperate.
Larinioides patagiatus (Clerck, 1757)
Size: Female 5-7 mm; male 5-6 mm. Maturity: Juveniles emerge in spring from the egg cocoon in which they have hibernated. Adult in late summer? Habitat: Often in drier conditions than L. cornutus. The vertical web is placed in grass, bushes or trees at 0.5 - 2 m above ground level. Range: sSW. Circumpolar, low arctic-temperate.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile, abdominal markings.
Juvenile.
Family: Dictynidae (Meshweb Weavers)
The Dictynidae is relatively species rich encompassing 563 species in 48 genera. The highest diversity is found in the temperate regions. They range in size from very small to medium (1.3-8.0 mm body size). The family is grouped into three rather different subfamilies: Dictyninae, Cicurininae, and Tricholathysinae. Dictynids are cribellate but cribellum is reduced in the Cicurininae. The lifestyle is quite different among the subfamilies. The Dictyninae, encompassing such genera as Dictyna, Emblyna and Nigma are mostly plant dwellers and are found in low vegetation as well as higher up such as shoot apices of grass and bushes or the foliage of trees. Here they build irregular, woolly mesh webs often made of bluish cribellate silk. The Cicurininae (e.g. Cicurina and Lathys) and Tricholathysinae (e.g. Argenna and Altella) are mostly ground-dwellers building their webs underneath logs, stones, and other objects on the ground. They are found in a variety of habitats. Members of the Tricholathysinae are also found in salt marshes and in algal upwash. The two Greenlandic species are mostly found in shrubs, weeds, and among rocks and stones. They build rather messy, bluish cribellate webs, which are quite conspicuous when placed in the vegetation, especially in the tops of weeds and twigs. The two species are separable by their abdominal markings. Dictyna major has a light longitudinal bar in the centre of the cardiac mark while Emblyna borealis has a solid dark cardiac mark. The spikes of the anterior median band curve outward in Dictyna major but is being straight in Emblyna borealis. While the two species co-occur in SE, S, and SW Greenland Emblyna borealis is the only species in the northern parts.
Characters of family: The dictynids are characterized by having 3 tarsal claws. They are cribellate but in many species the cribellum is reduced. They possess 8 eyes, however there are some 6-eyed Cicurina species in which the anterior medials are reduced. Some blind, cave dwelling Cicurina species even have they eyes reduced to zero. The calamistrum if present is arranged in one row (uniseriate). The cribellum is usually wide in those species possessing cribellum, bipartite or entire (absent in Cicurininae). The cephalic region of the Dictyninae is usually high perhaps to fit the relatively large poison glands. In this subfamily the cephalic region is furnished with longitudinal rows of white hairs. These are not present in the Tricholathysinae in which the carapace is pear-shaped. The sternum is triangular. The chelicerae are long and modified in males of some genera, e.g. Dictyna. The males of this genera has the chelicerae concave in front and bowed outward near the middle, often having a well developed mastidion (denticle or tubercle) on the anterior face of the chelicerae. The endites are converging. Legs are moderately long and usually without spines. In some genera tarsus of each leg are without a trichobothrium (e.g. Dictyna) while tarsus of each leg has one trichobothrium in others (e.g. Lathys). In Cicurina, tarsus of each leg possesses a series of trichobothria, which increase in length towards the distal end as in some genera of the Agelenidae family. In yet other dictynid genera there are two tarsal series of trichobothria. The abdomen is oval to elongate, often overhanging the carapace and densely covered with fine hairs, which sometimes are distributed to form a pattern. The cardiac mark is clear in some genera as in Dictyna but indistinct or absent in others as in Cicurina. Dictynids are entelegyne with the epigyne weakly sclerotized in some genera (e.g. Dictyna and Argenna) while more sclerotized in other genera (e.g. Cicurina). The male palp has a tibial apophysis. The embolus is long and slender in most species.
Genus: Dictyna Sundevall, 1833
Characters of genus: Members of this genus are small, rather similar spiders with an broad abdomen and short legs. Patterned with light hairs on a dark abdomen. The head region often have the light hairs arranged in longitudinal rows.
Dictyna major Menge, 1869
Size: Female 3-3.5 mm; male 2.5-3 mm. Habitat: Webs are found on rocks and and low shrubs such as willow. Range: SE-S-SW (north to island of Disko). Circumpolar, low arctic-temperate.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Genus: Emblyna Chamberlin, 1948
Emblyna borealis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1877)
It is speculated that this species has a triennial life-cycle in Greenland and all life-stages except adults overwinter in the vegetation. As seen on some of the pictures below this species is very prone to balloon even if there is no wind present. In fact it was difficult for me to take pictures without the specimen was trying to take off from the highest point of the substrate. Size: Female 2.7-3 mm; male 2.5-2.7 mm. Habitat: Mostly at ground level among Dryas tusssocks and other heath vegetation. Prefers dry south or south-west facing slopes and also select these sides of the tussocks or vegetation to place webs and egg sacks. Range: All Greenland. Also Russia, USA, and Canada. Arctic-alpine.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Family: Gnaphosidae (Ground Spiders)
The Gnaphosidae is the seventh largest spider family of the world encompassing ca. 2000 species in 8 subfamilies and 114 genera. They range in size from small to large (2-18 mm body size). The species are mainly found at ground level in open habitats but some species are house spiders, for example Scotophaeus blackwalli in the northern parts of its distributional range. Gnaphosids build a tubular retreat, from which they leave at night to hunt prey. The female guard her papery egg sack hidden in small holes under logs, stones, etc. Most species are only active at night, however spiders of the somewhat atypical genus Micaria (subfamily: Micariinae) are diurnal hunters running rapidly about in bright sunshine. There are only two Greenlandic species, Haplodrassus signifer found in the southern regions and Gnaphosa lapponum with a restricted distribution in the Scoresbysund area. Little is known about their biology in Greenland but both species are probably found under stones in open, lowland vegetation as in adjacent Iceland. The two species are separable by viewing the curvature of the posterior eye row from above using a lens. Gnaphosa lapponum is characterized by having the posterior row of eyes recurved while Haplodrassus signifer has this row straight or slightly procurved.
Characters of family: The gnaphosids are rather stout ecribellate spiders with a flattened and elongate abdomen. The carapace is ovoid and rather low being smoothly convex and with a distinct fovea in most species. The head is not sharply set off from the thoracic region. Gnaphosids are fairly easily recognized by their cylindrical and parallel spinners, the anterior pair being slightly longer, and more heavily sclerotized than the posterior pair. The anterior spinners are separated from each other by approximately one spinner diameter with some exceptions, e.g. Micaria in which genus anterior spinners are closer. They have 8 eyes in 2 rows. The posterior medial eyes are often not round, but oval, triangular or reduced to slits. All eyes are with a silvery sheen except for the anterior medials, which are dark. The sternum is ovoid, pointed posteriorly. The chelicerae are robust, and the fang furrows are provided with teeth. The retromargin may have a sclerotized lamina (flat, keel-like plate) in place of teeth. This lamina is serrated in some genera. The curvature of the posterior row of eyes and the position and shape of cheliceral lamina and teeth are important characters when keying gnaphosids to genus level under the stereomicroscope. The endites usually have an oblique or transverse depression. They are provided with a serrula (row or cluster of tiny teeth on the front margin). Gnaphosids are also characterized by having 2 tarsal claws, claw tufts, and scopulae. Legs are stout and in some species there are small brushes of more and less stiff hairs present distally on metatarsus IV. Female palp is furnished with small spines and a finely toothed claw. The abdomen is often provided with dense coverage of short sleek hairs giving the abdomen a mousy-like appearance. Sometimes erect, curved setae are present, particularly at the anterior edge (see for example images of Gnaphosa lucifuga). Many species are uniformly coloured in greyish-brown or blackish colours. However, abdomens of some species have striking white patterns of spots or lines while abdomens of others are iridescent. Most males have a scutum at the anterior end. The spiracle is situated close to the spinners. Gnaphosids are entelegyne spiders often having rather large epigynes with sclerotized structures. They are somewhat variable and closely related species may be difficult to identify. Male palps are usually provided with a large tibial apophysis and the shape of this is important when identifying the species.
Genus: Gnaphosa Latreille, 1804
Characters of genus: Most species with dark brown cephalothorax. The abdomes is either dark brown, greyish-black or black, thickly covered with grey hairs. The genus is characterized by having the posterior row of eyes recurved.
Gnaphosa lapponum (L. Koch, 1866)
Description: Carapace yellow brown to dark brown. the chelicerae are dark. The abdomen is greyish brown to almost black. The anterior spinners are long and cylindrical. Size: Female 8-10 mm; male 7-9 mm. Maturity: In nearby Iceland adults of both sexes are found July and August (Agnarsson, 1996). Habitat: Little is known about the habitat in Greenland. In Iceland it has been recorded from 0-700 m a.s.l., usually found under stones in open, dry to moist vegetation (Agnarsson, 1996). Range: SE. The species has a very restricted distribution in the Scoresbysund area from 70°30 to 70°45. Marusik (in prep) speculates that the species recently have migrated from nearby Iceland where it is fairly common..
Genus: Haplodrassus Chamberlin, 1922
Characters of genus: Carapace elongate and fairly low. The brownish cephalothorax have complex black lines. Head much wider than both row of eyes. The posterior medial eyes are larger than the laterals as well as oval and oblique. Posterior row of eyes has the medials closer to each other than to the laterals. Anterior row of eyes straight or slightly recurved while posterior row is procurved. The distance between the outer edges of anterior medial eyes is about the same as the distance between outer edges of posterior medials. Clypeus low about equal to the distance of one anterior medial eye. Fovea short as in the Clubionidae. Chelicerae strong with lateral condyles. Chelicerae with teeht both on promargin and retromargin. Labium longer than wide and angulate where sides meets posterior border.Sternum does not extend between coxae IV. Trochanters smooth. The distal end of metatarsi III and IV is not furnished with a preening comb. Males do not have a scutum. Some species have vague patterns of chevrons on the abdomen, but these patterns are not reliable in separating the species since the variation within species is considerable. Male palp with a tibial apophysis, the shape of which is important for identification. Sometimes the shape is discernible with a lens allowing for identification in the field. The epigyne is often large and females of some species are also identifiable in the field using a lens.
Haplodrassus signifer (C. L. Koch, 1839) - Stealthy ground spider
Description: Carapace greyish brown to dark brown, head gradually darker towards anterior edge in lighter specimens. Chelicerae dark brown. Sternum dark brown. Legs brown. The abdomen is somewhat flattened, brown to blackish. Three pairs of longitudinal short stripes (sigilla?) are sometimes visible on dorsum, the posterior pair oblique. Light, obscure chevrons sometimes present in lighter, mostly female specimens. Males generally darker than females, sometimes nearly black. Size: Female 7-9 mm; male 5-8 mm. Maturity: No data for Greenland available. In Iceland adults of males are found mainly in May and June while females are found in June and July (Agnarsson, 1996). Habitat: Warm, dry to damp conditions without dense vegetation. It may be found under under stones and under low vegetation in heathland, herb fields and snow beds. It has also been found under algal upwash at the seashore. In Iceland it is mainly confined to the lowland less than 300 m a.s.l. (Agnarsson, 1996). Range: SE-S-SW (north to the island of Disko). Circumpolar, low arctic-subtropic.
Family: Hahniidae (Lesser Cobweb Spiders)
This is a fairly small, clearly defined family due to the peculiar arrangement of the spinners in a transverse row. The family is represented with ca. 235 species in 26 genera. They are found in most parts of the world but are missing in some arctic areas as well as being unrecorded from some smaller islands and archipelagos. The members of Hahniidae are small to medium sized spiders ranging from 1.3-6 mm body size. They are usually found close to the ground where they construct small sheet webs in low vegetation, amongst stones, and moss or across small depressions on the ground. The spider hunts on the upper side of the sheet and apparently uses no retreat. There is just one Greenlandic species occurring in the southern parts of the country.
Characters of family: The members of Hahniidae belong to the group of entelegyne ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. The eyes are equal-sized and arranged in 2 rows of 4 with both eye rows slightly procurved. The most important character for this family is the transversely arranged row of spinners being clearly visible with a lens. The outermost (posterior) pair of spinners is long and two-segmented. The carapace is longer than wide and narrowed in head region. Sometimes there are indistinct striae radiating from the short fovea and in front of this the head region often shows reticulations. The carapace is very glossy in many species due to lack of hairs except for some forward directed ones in the midline of the head region. Lateral side of chelicerae with stridulating ridges, these are more strongly developed in males. The labium is wider than long. The legs are short but nevertheless they are fast runners. There are few spines and the trichobothria are arranged in a row as in the Agelenidae in which family some genera of Hahniidae used to belong. The female palp is furnished with a claw, which is usually toothless. The abdomen is oval and often uniformly coloured in shades of brown with some lighter coloured species having clear chevrons while these are being more indistinct in darker species. The tracheal spiracle is situated one-third to halfway from the spinners to the epigastric fold. The epigyne is flat and small. Often curved ducts and spermathecae are visible and the overall impression is rather characteristic for the family despite great variation in the shape of epigynes between species. The male palp is furnished with both a patellar and a tibial apophysis and the shape of both are important characters when identifying species under the stereomicroscope.
Genus: Hahnia C. L. Koch, 1841
Characters of genus: The carapace is longer than broad. Eyes close together with anterior medials smaller than anterior laterals. Trapezium formed by medial eyes widest behind. Lateral sides of chelicerae are straight. Tip of sternum not truncated between coxa IV. The tracheal spiracle is situated about two-fifth of distance from the spinners to the epigastric fold. The six spinners are in a transverse row. The lateral spinners are clearly longer than the rest, and the distal segment of lateral spinners is just half as long as proximal. There is no colulus.
Hahnia glacialis Sørensen, 1898
Webs are built under stones, in low vegetation or across depressions in the ground. The spider resides on the upper side of the web. Size: Female 2.5 mm; male 2 mm. Maturity: The single male in my collection was collected on April 26 (Nuuk). Habitat: Warm places in with low vegetation such as lichen heaths. Range: SE-S-SV (north to island of Disko). Holarctic (except Europe), arctic boreal.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Family: Linyphiidae (Line Weaving Spiders)
The Linyphiidae is the worlds second largest spider family encompassing ca. 4320 species in more than 570 genera. The highest diversity is found in the northern temperate regions. In these regions as well as in the arctic regions spiders of this family dominates the spider fauna. The jumping spiders (Salticidae) is an even larger family but they generally require warmer conditions than the linyphiids and for this reason they are less well represented in the cooler regions. Linyphiids are found worldwide in all terrestrial biotopes and is perhaps the most widely distributed spider family. They range in size from very small to medium (1-8.5 mm body size). Most species are found at ground level but they occupy a very wide array of habitats. The members of the family build a sheet web sometimes dome shaped. The web has no retreat and the spider always hang inverted below the sheet. Larger species in particular sometimes add irregular vertical snares acting both as sheet suspension strands and barrage balloon wires impeding the flight of insects. When insects strike the vertical snares they fall down on the sheet and the spider rush to bite the prey through the sheet web. Many species disperse by air and the phenomenon of ballooning is very noticeable in this family when very dense populations try to balloon at the same time. The spiders climb up high in the vegetation and point the spinners toward the sky. In this position they let out some strands of silk and eventually the wind will lift the spiders up in the air. Often they only manage to fly a short distance but they will keep trying sometimes resulting in a layer of shimmering silk covering the vegetation. So far 48 species have been recorded from Greenland equalling about two-thirds of the spider species. Most species are found in the southern parts of the country but about one-quarter of the species are recorded from the northern parts.
Characters of family: The linyphiids belong to the group of ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. The eyes are arranged in 2 rows of 4, usually heterogeneous in size with the anterior medials smaller than the rest. Frequently, the eyes are ringed with black, this being most noticeable in species with lighter coloured carapaces such as many species of the Linyphiinae subfamily. Some species adapted to dark habitats have the eyes much reduced, sometimes being very minute in size or only evidenced by pale markings under the integument (e.g. Porrhomma rosenhauri). The carapace is highly variable especially in the smaller species belonging to the Erigoninae subfamily. Males of this large subfamily frequently have the frontal region modified into strangely formed lobes or bear other types of protuberances some of which may have tufts of hairs. Some species have the carapace punctured with pits (see images of Lophomma punctatum). The males may also have sulci (grooves) running backwards from the posterior eyes. The chelicerae do not possess a lateral condyle (boss at base of chelicer). The outer side of the chelicerae have horizontal stridulating ridges visible in many species. Such ridges only occur scattered in other spider families (see for example images of ridges in Metellina stridulans of the Tetragnathidae). The labium is strongly rebordered as in the Nesticidae, Araneidae, and Tetragnathidae. The endites are usually parallel. Legs are slender and provided with spines. The number of spines on the legs is an important character for species identification when this is undertaken using the stereomicroscope. The abdomen is nearly always longer than wide sometimes with a pattern (Linyphiinae in particular) and sometimes mainly uniformly coloured, very often blackish (Erigoninae in particular). Some species posses an abdominal scutum as for example some members of the Ceratinella genus. The epigynes are variable, sometimes simple as in the Erigoninae or provided with a scapus as often seen in the Linyphiinae. The male palp often possesses an U-shaped paracymbium. The family was earlier divided in to two subfamilies, which sometimes were elevated to family status: the Linyphiidae and Erigonidae (also known as Micryphantidae). The Linyphiidae was characterized by not having tibial apophyses on the male palp, by having a claw on the female palp in most species, and by having two dorsal spines on tibia IV or if only one spine present there was one short spine on metatarsi I and II. The Erigonidae was characterized by having at least one tibial apophyses on the male palp, by lacking a claw on the female palp, and by having just a single dorsal spine on tibia IV and with the metatarsi spineless, or all spines lacking altogether. However, the family is now divided in to seven subfamilies, the Dubiaraneinae, Erigoninae, Ipainae, Linyphiinae, Micronetinae, Mynogleninae, and Stemonyphantinae. Consult recent literature or Wikipedia for lists of subfamily genera. See also Linyphiid Spiders Of The World by Andrei Tanasevitch and LinyGen: Linyphioid Genera of the World (Pimoidae and Linyphiidae) by Gustavo Hormiga, Dimitar Dimitrov, Jeremy A. Miller and Fernando Alvarez-Padilla.
Genus: Agyneta Hull, 1911
Characters of genus: Posterior eyes of approximately similar size (Locket & Millidge, 1953). Tm I = 0.65-0.9. With a trichobothrium on metatarsus IV. Lateral spines on Tibia I and II absent.
Agyneta subtilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1863)
Description: Carapace brown. Abdomen grey to black. Legs orange brown or brown with tibiae I and metatarsus I darker. Female palp strongly swollen. Male palp elevated dorsally, appearing subquadratic in lateral view. Size: Female 2.0-2.7 mm; male 2.0-2.5 mm.
Genus: Bathyphantes Menge, 1866
Characters of genus: Palp of female with tarsal claw. Legs rather long and slender. All tibiae with two dorsal spines, metatarsi spineless (Locket & Millidge 1953).
Bathyphantes simillimus (L. Koch, 1879)
Genus: Bolephthyphantes Strand, 1901
Bolephthyphantes index (Thorell, 1856)
Description: Carapace yellow brown with darker median and marginal bands (Nentwig et al. 2003). Sternum greyish yellow brown. Chelicers light yellow. Legs coloured as carapace. Abdomen is dark grey, dorsally with numerous white spots. Male with strong forward directed hairs in cephalic region (Marusik in prep.) very similar to Bolyphantes luteolus, a similar sized species which overlap in distribution (perhaps not in altitude range). Size: 2.5-3.4 mm.
Genus: Ceratinella Emerton, 1882
Characters of genus: Compact dark spiders with coriaceous abdomens (Locket & Millidge 1953). The male carapace is slightly domed in head region. The legs are short and robust with metatarsi equal or slightly longer than tarsi. Tibial spines very short and resemble hairs. The abdomen is globular in females, less so in males. A dorsal scutum is present in many species.
Ceratinella ornatula (Crosby & Bishop, 1925)
Genus: Collinsia (Thorell 1871)
Characters of genus: Male head not elevated. Metatarsi slightly longer than tarsi. Tibia I-III with two spines, IV with only one (Locket & Millidge 1953).
Collinsia holmgreni (Thorell, 1871)
Description: Carapace yellow brown to brown. Sternum yellow and suffused and reticulated with black (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen grey to black. Size: Female 2.0-2.5 mm; male 1.9-2.2 mm.
Collinsia spetsbergensis (Thorell, 1871)
Collinsia thulensis (Jackson, 1934)
Genus: Diplocephalus Bertkau, 1883
Characters of genus: Male head elevated in to a variety of lobes (Locket & Millidge 1953). Tibiae I-II with two spines, III-IV with just one spine (spines sometimes reduced or absent in males). Metatarsi longer than tarsi: leg I: 1.2-1.3 times, leg IV: 1.5-1.6 times (Locket & Millidge 1953).
Diplocephalus barbiger (Roewer, 1955)
Genus: Dismodicus Simon, 1884
Dismodicus decemoculatus (Emerton, 1882)
Genus: Erigone Audouin, 1826
Characters of genus: Edges of carapace strongly dentate in males, less so in females. Male head domed, but not raised in to a lobe. The chelicers are robust and furnished with warts and teeth anteriorly being more strongly developed in males than in females. Tibiae I-III with two spines, IV with just one. Metatarsi slightly longer than tarsi: leg I: 1.3-1.4 times, leg IV: ca.1.6 times (Locket & Millidge 1953). Male palp with characteristic large ventral patellar apophysis at the distal end. Palpal femur often with ventral knobs and teeth along length.
Erigone arctica (White, 1852)
Description: Carapace dark brown to black with dentate edges prominent in males. Male chelicerae with pronounced warts but not visible with a lens. Female abdomen brown to black, male abdomen dark brown to black. Legs yellow-brown to brown. Size: Female 2.6-3.4 mm; male 2.6-3.2 mm.
Erigone arctica soerenseni Holm, 1956
Erigone psychrophila Thorell, 1871
Description: Carapace dark brown to black with dentate edges prominent in males but absent in females. Male chelicerae with large warts anteriorly. Male palpal femur with teeth extending to about two thirds of its length and sometimes also one additional large tooth at apical end. Patellar apophysis is long curved and tapering. Male palpal tibia without a ventral tooth. Female abdomen yellow-brown to black, male abdomen dark brown to black. Legs yellow-brown to orange-brown. Size: Female 2.4-3.1 mm; male 2.0-3.0 mm.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Erigone tirolensis L. Koch, 1872
Description: Carapace dark brown to black with dentate edges prominent in males, minute or absent in females. Male chelicers with 6-7 fairly large warts on anterior surface (Locket & Millidge 1953). but these are not visible with a lens. Female abdomen brown to black, male abdomen dark brown to black. Legs yellow-brown to brown. Male palpal femur almost straight, ventral teeth distributed along practically whole length. Size: Female 2.2-2.8 mm; male 2.1-2.5 mm.
Erigone whymperi (O. P.-Cambridge, 1877)
Genus: Hilaira Simon, 1884
Characters of genus: Although fairly small Linyphiinae species they appear as large species of Erigoninae due to the generally dark colours. The carapace is broad in front. The front half of the carapace is domed, however much less so in females than in males. The males are separable in the field by the shape of the dome in lateral view using a lens (see drawings of carapaces in Roberts, 1987). Chelicers appear robust. Tibiae I-IV with two dorsal spines with one additional prolateral spine on tibia I (Locket & Millidge, 1951). Male palp complex and with large paracymbium and with tibial apophysis. Note that H. frigida recently has been transferred to the genus Oreoneta.
Hilaira herniosa (Thorell, 1875)
Hilaira vexatrix (O. P.-Cambridge, 1877)
Genus: Hybauchenidium Holm, 1973
Hybauchenidium gibbosum (Sørensen, 1898)
Genus: Improphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 1996
Characters of genus: Small linyphiids ranging form 1.45 to slightly longer than 2 mm body length (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1996). Legs not annulated or banded. Tm IV without a trichobothrium. Abdomen grey to black without pattern. Males are characterized by the sickle-shaped embolus with open sulcus and slightly reduced carina (not visible with a hand lens). Epigynes are protruding and large.
Improphantes complicatus (Emerton, 1882)
Description: Both males and females have carapace and legs pale yellow-brown and grey abdomens (Locket & Millidge 1953). Tm I ca. = 0.2. Metatarsi with one spine each Size: 1.7-2.2 mm.
Genus: Islandiana Brændegaard, 1932
Islandiana princeps Braendegaard, 1932
Genus: Lepthyphantes Menge, 1866
Characters of genus: Medium to large linyphiids ranging form 2.5 to 4.5 mm body length (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1996). Legs clearly annulated in European species. Tm IV without trichobothrium. Abdomen with a distinct pattern, usually composed of broad black transverse markings formed as bars, bands or chevrons on a grey background. Abdomens may be dotted with some whitish spots. Males are characterized by the sickle-shaped embolus with tight sulcus and large carina (not visible with a hand lens). Epigynes wit large scape arising from the inside of the epigynal cavity. Note that there is some disagreements on the delineation of the genus. The genus description here is based on a narrow conception as given by Saaristo & Tanasevitch (1996).
Lepthyphantes turbatrix (O. P.-Cambridge, 1877)
Genus: Mecynargus Kulczynski, 1894
Characters of genus: Males of this genus are characterized by a short embolus lying in a loop in the distal part of the bulbus (not visible with a lens). Epigynes broader than long or as broad as long. Males of some species has the carapace slightly domed behind the eyes or elevated conically (Roberts 1987, Marusik in prep.).
Mecynargus borealis (Jackson, 1930)
Mecynargus morulus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)
Description: Head not elevated in to lobe in male but nevertheless rather characteristic in shape. Carapace yellow to dark brown with darker striae (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen greyish black, rarely brown. Legs coloured as carapace or lighter. Tm I ca. 0.7-0.77, Tm IV absent (Locket & Millidge 1953, Roberts 1987). Only species in genus in which males possess distinct stridulating ridges on the branchial opercula with an opposing tooth on each Coxa IV (Roberts 1987, Marusik in prep.). Stridulating ridges are much less developed in females (Locket & Millidge 1953). Size: Female 1.7-2.0 mm; male 1.6-1.9 mm.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Mecynargus paetulus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Mecynargus sphagnicola (Holm, 1939)
Genus: Metopobactrus Simon, 1884
Metopobactrus prominulus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Genus: Neriene Blackwall, 1833
Neriene peltata (Wider, 1834)
Female.
Female.
Genus: Oreoneta Chyzer & Kulczynski, 1894
Characters of genus: The genus has been revised by Saaristo & Marusik (2003). It is defined by the structure of the copulatory organs, particularly by the shape of the male embolic membrane (Saaristo & Marusik 2003). Medium sized linyphiids ranging from 2.5-4.75 mm. Most species are dark, cephalothorax and legs brown with greenish grey-greenish black abdomen. The male carapace is somewhat elevated at front while the female carapace is unmodified.
Oreoneta frigida (Thorell, 1872)
Description: Carapace orange to brown, slightly domed behind eyes (Locket & Millidge 1953). Sternum orange brown. Colour of abdomen vary from yellow-brown, brown, grey to black, perhaps generally darker in males. Legs orange brown to brown, Tm I ca. 0.6-0.7. The male palp has a large tibial apophysis and the female epigyne is much wider than long. Size: Female 3-4 mm; male 2.8-3.3 mm.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Oreonetides Strand, 1901
Oreonetides vaginatus (Thorell, 1872)
Description: Carapace brown with some thin forward directed hairs in head region. Legs coloured as carapace. Tm I ca. 0.4 (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen light yellowish- to orange-brown or -grey. Sparsely clothed with fairly long, dark hairs. Size: Female 3.0-3.8 mm; male 3.0-3.5 mm.
Genus: Pelecopsis Simon, 1864
Pelecopsis parallela (Wider, 1834)
Genus: Pocadicnemis Simon, 1884
Pocadicnemis americana Millidge, 1976
Genus: Porrhomma Simon, 1884
Characters of genus: There is no recent revision of the genus available. The description here is based on Locket & Millidge (1953), and Borges & Wunderlich (2008). Ocular area with some forward projecting hairs, most pronounced in males. Eyes are variable in size, in some species minute or absent. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. The species differ in leg spination, a character that is useful for grouping the species aiding identification. Male palp with no tibial apophysis. Some species possess stridulating files on coxa I while these are reduced or absent in others. The latter case is considered a derived (apomorphic) character of the genus. Tm I of British species range between 0.3-0.64 (Roberts 1987).
Porrhomma convexum (Westring, 1851)
Description: A fairly large Porrhomma species. Carapace yellow-brown to blackish brown. Ocular area with forward projecting hairs. Abdomen greyish black. Legs yellow-brown. Femur I with one or two dorsal spines and without prolateral spine. All metatarsi spineless. Tm I 0.4-0.49 (Roberts 1987). Size: 2.2-3.0 mm.
Genus: Praestigia Millidge, 1954
Praestigia groenlandica (Holm, 1967)
Also known as Praestigia groenlandica
Genus: Sciastes Bishop & Crosby, 1938
Sciastes extremus (Holm, 1967)
Genus: Scotinotylus Simon, 1884
Characters of genus: Species rich genus consisting of small species ranging from 1.2 to 3.0 mm (Millidge1981). Male head domed behind posterior eyes, in some species only slightly while in others formed in to a large lobe. Dome or lobe are furnished with some short, fine hairs on anterior or frontal parts, including ocular area. Sulci and pits may be present in those species having a definite lobe. Eyes are widely spaced and fairly small in some species, perhaps most pronounced in males. The female carapace is only slightly elevated behind the eyes and carries no other modifications. Chelicerae with stridulating files in both sexes and in all species (Millidge 1981). Abdomen without a scutum and practically unicolourous. Legs are relatively short and tend to appear stout in smaller species. Tibia and metatarsus I dorsally with dense short hairs in both sexes. In males of some species these hairs are curved (requires a stereomicroscope to be visible). Metatarsi I-III with a dorsal trichobothrium, metatarsus IV withou a trichobothrium. Tm I range between 0.35 and 0.7, but the value is less than 0.55 in most species (Millidge 1981). Male palpal tibia is elongated and swollen in some species. The palpal tibia may bear one or more thickened spines dorsally. Tibial apophysis usually short, often with a short tooth distallly. In species with a longer apophysis this terminates in a hook. As most linyphiid genera, Scotinotylus is defined more unambiguously by the structure of the genitals (see Millidge 1977, 1981 for details).
Scotinotylus alpinus (Banks, 1896)
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Scotinotylus evansi (O. P.-Cambridge, 1894)
Description: Carapace yellow-brown to dark brown. Male head domed roundly behind the eyes. Ocular area with some short, fine hairs. Posterior medial eyes fairly small in male and spaced more than two diameters apart, in females only about one and a half diameter apart (Locket & Millidge 1953). Legs orange-brown to brown. Tm I 0.45-0.55 (Roberts 1987). Abdomen grey to black. Size: Female 1.8-2.3 mm; male 1.8-2.0 mm.
Scotinotylus sacer (Crosby, 1929)
Genus: Semljicola Strand, 1906
Semljicola obtusus (Emerton, 1915)
Genus: Silometopoides Eskov, 1990
Silometopoides pampia (Chamberlin, 1949)
Genus: Sisicus Bishop & Crosby, 1938
Sisicus apertus (Holm, 1939)
Genus: Tarsiphantes Strand, 1905
Tarsiphantes latithorax Strand, 1905
Genus: Tiso Simon, 1884
Characters of genus: Male head only slightly raised behind eyes. Eyes rather small. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. Tm I 0.5-0.59 (Roberts 1987). Tibiae I-IV with one spine.
Tiso aestivus (L. Koch, 1872)
Description: Carapace brown, surface slightly reticulated (not visible with a lens). Often with dark markings just anterior to the fovea. Abdomen brownish-grey to black. Legs brown. Tm I 0.5-0.59 (Roberts 1987). Male palpal femur and patella are both slightly elongated. Size: Female 1.6-1.9 mm; male 1.4-1.6 mm.
Genus: Typhochrestus Simon, 1884
Typhochrestus pygmaeus (Sørensen, 1898)
Genus: Wabasso Millidge, 1984
Wabasso quaestio (Chamberlin, 1948)
Genus: Walckenaeria Blackwall, 1833
Characters of genus: The members of this genus range in size from 1.35 to 4.0 mm (Millidge 1983). The male carapace in most European species is elevated, often into large lobes or modified in some other way. However, in a few species such as in W. dysderoides the male head is only slightly domed behind the eyes. Where there is a lobe this carries the posterior median eyes (Millidge 1983). In other species the male carapaces carries a projection, often furnished with hairs which may be clavate or furcated. More rarely is the carapace of the female elevated, such as in W. acuminata which carries a conical elevation. The sternum is longer than wide with the posterior end pointed between coxae IV (Locket & Millidge 1953). The pedicel is distinctly sclerotized and is quite conspicuous in some species. The abdomen is without a scutum and is unicoloured in most species, usually greyish black but occasionally light grey or yellowish brown. Tibia I and II carries two spines while III and IV carries one in the European species. Legs are unicoloured in most species, often bright orange or reddish orange. Some species have contrastingly blackened tibiae on anterior leg pairs. Spines are weak, particularly on legs I and II in males (Millidge 1983). All metatarsi with a trichobothrium, Tm I variable, ranging from 0.39-0.76 in British species (Roberts 1987). The male palpal organs are of similar form and differences are not discernible with a hand lens. Females of a few species possess characteristic epigynes which makes them identifiable in the field using a hand lens. Other characteristics of the genus (not visible with a lens) include the strongly pectinate and large superior tarsal claws of legs I and II, clear transverse striae on the lateral faces of the chelicerae and the acuminate tarsus of the female palp (Locket & Millidge 1953, Millidge 1983). The European members of the genus have been reviewed by Wunderlich (1972) and the North American by Millidge (1983).
Walckenaeria castanea (Emerton, 1882)
Walckenaeria clavicornis (Emerton, 1882)
Description: Carapace brownish, usually fairly dark brown with faint darker striae. The male carapace modified by possessing a small upward directed protuberance slightly bifurcate distally. Legs orange to orange brown. Tm I 0.5-0.56 (Roberts 1987). Abdomen grey to black. Size: Female 2.4-2.7 mm; male 2.1-2.4 mm.
Walckenaeria cuspidata brevicula (Crosby & Bishop, 1931)
Walckenaeria karpinskii (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)
Family: Lycosidae (Wolf Spiders)
The Lycosidae is the fourth largest spider family of the world encompassing ca 2320 species in 7 subfamilies and 107 genera. They range in size from small to very large (2.8-45 mm body size). Most species are hunting spiders at ground level using no web for catching prey. However spiders of a few genera such as Aulonia and Sosippus make sheet webs provided with a funnel retreat, very similar to the webs of agelenid spiders. Spiders of some lycosid genera make burrows in the ground lined with silk serving as retreats and a place for the females to guard their egg sacks, e.g. species of Alopecosa, Trochosa, and Arctosa. Spiders of the Pirata genus make silk tubes in vegetation where they spend part of their time. Many other lycosids never use a retreat but are found running about in grass, leaf litter, over sandy or stony areas, across the surface of water and many other places. Wolf spiders are often very noticeable as many are active during daylight hours running about in sunshine hunting prey on the ground or in low vegetation. The females of some species attach the globular egg sack to the spinners, which is then carried about. After the juvenile spiders emerge from the egg sack they will climb up on to the mothers abdomen making it appear much larger. The spiderlings will stay well protected on the abdomen for several days or even weeks. Eventually they disperse and start a life on their own. The family is represented with eight species in Greenland in three genera. Only Pardosa glacialis have been found throughout Greenland, the remaining species have a more or less restricted range. Most species are found in the southern parts of the country. However, Alopecosa exaperans is only known from high arctic regions in north and northwest Greenland.
Characters of family: The lycosids belong to the group of araneomorph, ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. The eyes are all dark in colour and arranged in three rows in a characteristic fashion. The anterior row has four small eyes set in a straight or slightly curved row, the second row has two large eyes further up on the on the vertical front, and the posterior row has two medium-sized eyes on the sides of the head which can be more or less steep sided. There are only few additional diagnostic characters of importance for the family, i.e. the lack of a retrolateral tibial apophysis on the male palp and that the female of many species carries her egg sack attached to the spinners. The carapace is longer than wide with the head region narrowed and high. It is usually densely covered with hairs and often with longitudinal median or lateral bands or both. In some genera there are characteristic bars in the median band or elongate U-, Y-shaped marks. The sternum is oval to shield shaped (scutiform). The chelicerae are relatively strong with toothed cheliceral furrow and prominent lateral condyle (boss). The labium is a wide as long, about half the length of endites. Legs are spinose and provided with 3 tarsal claws, usually with scopulae for adhesion. The second segments of the legs (trochanters) are notched. The abdomen is oval, always covered with dense hairs. There is no colulus in front of the spinners. The tracheal spiracle is situated just in front of the spinners. The epigyne is well sclerotized median septum which may be large and plate-like. The male palp is only rarely provided with a tibial apophysis. The tip of the male palp may have one or more claws.
Genus: Alopecosa Simon, 1885 - Fox-spiders
Characters of genus: Alopecosa seconds Pardosa in species richness within the Lycosidae. Medium-sized to large spiders with clear median band on the carapace wider than the eye group. Legs are stout with some males having swollen tibia I. Abdomen with clear cardiac mark. The species can be grouped by the colour of the ventral surface which is black in some species and light-coloured in others. The females dig a burrow where they guard their egg sack.
Alopecosa exasperans (O. P.-Cambridge, 1877)
Size: Female 7-10 mm; male 7-9 mm. Maturity: In nearby Ellesmere Island (Canada) males were found in June and July, females in July-?. Lifecycle may last 6-7 years (Leech, 1966 in Marusik, in prep.). Habitat: Only found in relatively warm places such as south and southwest facing slopes with Dryas vegetation. Range: nSW-NV-N. Nearctic, high arctic (Canada, Greenland).
Genus: Arctosa C. L. Koch, 1847 - Bear-spiders
Characters of genus: Medium-sized to large spiders characterized by a rather flattened carapace without clear median band, and with the eyes directed somewhat upwards. Most species lack longitudinal bands, and are well-camouflaged against the substrate. Legs with clear annulations or distinct spots. Males rather similar to females in general appearance. Depending on habitat, the species make burrows in sand, moss, detritus or under stones, but specimens are also frequently seen running about.
Arctosa alpigena (Doleschall, 1852) - Alpine bear-spider
Description: The overall colouration of the species is reddish brown. Posterior end of carapace with two blackish dots. The legs are brown with dark annulations. The pale, very clear whitish cardiac mark is relatively wide and outlined by thin black line. Sometimes the cardiac mark is truncated at rear. Behind the cardiac mark there are some light transverse lines. The male and female have similar coloration. Size: Female 7-10 mm; male 5-8 mm. Maturity: In Iceland adult males have been recorded from May to July, females from June to September (Agnarsson, 1996). Habitat: Various dry heathlands and dry steppe. In Iceland also open damp Calliergon moss (Agnarsson, 1996). Range: S-SE. Circumpolar, low arctic-temperate.
Arctosa insignita (Thorell, 1872)
Genus: Pardosa C. L. Koch, 1847 - Thinlegged wolf spiders
Characters of genus: Pardosa is distinguished from other Lycosid genera by the height of clypeus being at least twice the diameter of a anterior lateral eye, and by the head having almost vertical sides when viewed from in front. Fairly small, slender species, usually with a light median band on the carapace. The genus contains a large number of species, many of which are both common and abundant. They are active during the day, and often very noticeable when running in the sunshine or basking in exposed places. Some species cannot be identified on the basis of the general appearance, and require microscopic examination of the genitals for proper identification.
Pardosa albomaculata (Emerton, 1885)
Pardosa furcifera (Thorell, 1875)
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Pardosa glacialis (Thorell, 1872) - Arctic wolf spider
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female with eggsack attached to spinners.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male palp.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Pardosa groenlandica (Thorell, 1872)
Female.
female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female spinners.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Pardosa hyperborea (Thorell, 1872)
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Family: Philodromidae (Running Crab Spiders)
The Philodromidae is a medium sized spider family comprising a world fauna of about 522 species in 29 genera. They range in size from small to large (2-16 mm body size). Philodromids have agile flattened bodies and laterigrade legs, which in most genera are of about the same lengths and thickness. They move rapidly around as their claw tufts and scopulae provide good adhesion to slippery surfaces. Species of Philodromus are able to move from one side of a leaf to the other or halfway round a stem so quickly that human eyes hardly manage to follow the motion. Once they stop running they instantly adopt a motionless, camouflaged posture with the legs stretched to closely follow the contour of the substrate. The laterigrade legs allow them to slip in to bark crevices etc. without raising the leg joints almost as they are 2-dimensional creatures. Many species are cryptic coloured and blend in with the substrate being very difficult to spot. Most species inhabit the foliage, branches, and stems of bushes and trees but many are also found running about at ground level, e.g. species of Thanatus. Species of Tibellus are elongated and adapted to a life on grass stems. Many species of Philodromus are capable of changing the depth of colour to conform to different backgrounds. Philodromus margaritatus occurs in two colour forms one of which is mottled in grey and brown perfectly camouflaged on bark. The second colour form Philodromus margaritatus forma laevipes is lighter with dark blotches and perfectly camouflaged on lichen covered stems. Most species in the northern temperate regions hibernate as subadults becoming adult in spring. The female constructs a woolly egg sack across a leaf, under bark etc. and some species stands guard directly over it while other species sit nearby. Thanatus arcticus is the only Greenlandic representative of the family. The species is known from from the south and southwest regions of Greenland.
Characters of family: The philodromids belong to the group of araneomorph, ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 2 tarsal claws. The eyes are not situated on tubercles. In many species they are fairly equal in size, however in some species all eyes of the anterior row or just the anterior medials are larger. The eyes are arranged in two recurved rows of four with the posterior row sometimes more strongly recurved than the anterior row. All legs are of about the same lengths or legs II alone longer (twice as long in Ebo). The legs are laterigrade so that the morphologically dorsal surface is rotated about one quarter of a turn to a posterior position. Tarsi I and II are provided with scopulae and claw tufts composed of spatulate hairs (thickest point on the distal half). The anterior tibia are sometimes provided with a row of long spines. Other diagnostics characters which separate philodromids from the related thomisids and sparassids include the lack of a colulus and the absence of tapetum in the secondary eyes. The carapace is as long as wide or elongate, rather flattened usually with fovea absent. It is densely clothed in recumbent plumiform or spatulate hairs. The carapace is frequently marked by a lighter longitudinal band of about the same width as the eye rows. The sternum is oval corresponding with carapace form, apex blunt between coxa IV. The cheliceral fang furrow usually has no teeth. The labium is longer than wide. Endites are longer than labium and converge in front. The female palp has a small toothed claw. The shape of the abdomen is oval, in some species slightly longer than wide, in others quite elongate. In most species the widest point of the abdomen is found in the rear half. It is densely covered with recumbent hairs and sparsely covered with longer, erect hairs. The cardiac mark is darker than the surrounding abdomen, sometimes very distinctive as in e.g. Thanatus. It may be followed by a series of chevrons. The spinners are simple. The tracheal spiracle is situated close to the spinners. The epigyne is usually small having a median septum. The male palp is furnished with a tibial apophysis; the shape of which is important when identifying to species level using the stereomicroscope.
Genus: Thanatus C. L. Koch, 1837
Characters of genus: The members of this genus have oval, sligthly elongate abdomens with a clear cardiac mark. The abdomen is the least flattened among the crab and running crab spiders and the legs are the least laterigrade. Therefore they bear some resemblance to the wolf spiders (Lycosidae), but they eyes are quite different. Species of Thanatus differ from species of Philodromus by having legs IV the longest and the strongly recurved posterior row of eyes. The anterior row is short. Eyes of the posterior row are almost uniformly spaced. The carapace and abdomen is without a dark longitudinal band.
Thanatus arcticus Thorell, 1872
This species is often observed running on the ground or clinging to objects such as stones. I once observed a female clash in to a female Pardosa carrying her offspring on her back. The Pardosa was quickly killed and the Pardosa spiderlings soon dispersed in all directions. Females of Thanatus arcticus have been observed to guard their large, white, and flat egg cocoon under stones. Size: Female 6-7 mm; male 5-6 mm. Maturity: No data available for Greenland. In northern Sweden adults are found in summer (Almquist, 2006b). Habitat: The species is frequently found running about in various types of heathland. Range: S-SW (north to the bight of Disko). Circumpolar, low arctic boreal.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Family: Tetragnathidae (Long-jawed Orb Weavers)
The Tetragnathidae is the tenth largest spider family of the world encompassing almost 1000 species in 4 subfamilies and 51 genera. They range in size from small to large (2-23 mm body size). Many species build delicate sometimes more or less horizontal orb webs with an open hub and few, wide-set radii and spirals. The webs have no signal line and no retreat and are often found in vegetation near water. The spiders often sit in the centre of the web. If disturbed they drop to the ground or cling to the vegetation adopting a stretch position with the long legs stretched out rendering themselves inconspicuous. It should be noted that only immatures of the shorter-legged Pachygnathy genus build orb webs. Adults of this genus are free-living hunters seeking their prey in the vegetation or at ground level. The long and divergent chelicerae of many species are used to hold the female during mating. The egg sacks are placed on the ground, behind bark or fastened in the vegetation. Some species camouflage the egg sack so it looks like mould or a bird dropping (for example species of Tetragnatha). The egg sack is often guarded by the female who takes residence near the egg sack adopting the stretch position to camouflage herself against the background. There is just one fairly common Greenlandic species, Tetragnatha extensa distributed in the southern regions of the country. With its elongate abdomen, long legs and enlarged chelicerae it cannot be mistaken for any other species occurring in Greenland.
Characters of family: The tetragnathids belong to the group of ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. Many members of the family are usually elongated spiders characterized by the often very long legs and chelicerae (subfamilies Tetragnathinae and Leucauginae). However there are some genera with oval abdomens or normal sized chelicerae (subfamily Metinae). Males are usually smaller and slimmer than females who often have the base of the abdomen swollen. Males often have relatively longer chelicerae than females and sometimes they are even longer than the carapace. The male chelicerae are also often furnished with spurs on their chelicerae, which are used to lock the female chelicerae during mating. The female palp is provided with a well-developed, toothed claw. The eyes are not unlike those of the araneids. They are subequal and arranged in 2 rows of 4 usually equidistant or with the medial eyes closer to each other than to the lateral eyes. The lateral eyes are either spaced apart or contiguous, sometimes situated on a tubercle. The primary eyes are always black. The secondary eyes of most genera are provided with a light-reflecting layer (tapetum) aiding nocturnal vision. However, tapetum is missing in a few genera such as Tetragnatha having all eyes black. The carapace is elongate and with short, shallow fovea (indistinct in Tetragnatha). The sternum is longer than wide and pointed at rear, sometimes protruding in between coxae IV. Narrow, horizontal sclerites are sometimes present between coxae and carapace. Endites are parallel and may either converge or dilate in front of the rebordered labium. The legs are long and slender and mostly with spines but in some genera there are none (for example Pachygnathy). The trichobothria are often branched. They are sometimes arranged in rows. The shape of the abdomen is variable sometimes round or oval but mostly elongate. Colours vary, quite often with bright white, green, red and yellow colours often with coppery or silvery blotches. Tetragnathids are entelegyne or secondary haplogyne (without epigyne). Sometimes the genital plate is not sclerotized (subfamily Tetragnathinae) and thus adult females may be difficult to separate from subadults and juveniles since there is no epigyne - just a hairy, tongue-shaped plate projecting posteriorly from the epigastric fold. The male palp is simple and often very similar within genera.
Genus: Tetragnatha Latreille, 1804 - Longjawed orb weavers, stretch spiders
Characters of genus: The abdomen is elongate and slender usually two or three times as long as wide. The lateral eyes of each row are not contiguous. The chelicerae are long and divergent and the fang furrows are provided with long rows of large teeth. The legs are very long and provided with spines.
Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus, 1758) - Common stretch-spider
Description: The carapace and large divergent palps are yellowish. The sternum is brown with a distinct light triangle anteriorly. The reticulated markings of the abdomen are quite variable. Usually silvery white with a yellowish or reddish midline band which sometimes is divided longitudinally. The ventral side of the abdomen is blackish edged by white bands. Size: Female 6.5-11 mm; male 5-9 mm.
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Family: Theridiidae (Comb-footed Spiders)
The Theridiidae is the fifth largest spider family of the world encompassing ca 2280 species in 6 subfamilies and 96 genera. They are extremely variable in shape and colouration with some species appearing fairly robust (for example Steatoda) while other delicate (for example thin-legged species such as Ariamnes). They range in size from very small to medium-sized (1-22 mm body size). I consider the fine whip spider Ariamnes (Argyrodes) colubrinus a medium-sized spider despite a body length of 22 mm because of the whip-like, extremely elongated abdomen. Most theridiid species build irregular three-dimensional space webs with criss cross threads. Some species use a retreat, usually placed inside the web. The spider often sits inverted in the web or hidden in the retreat but will run for cover or drop from the web if disturbed. They overpower their prey by wrapping it with sticky silk by activity of the hind legs. These are provided with a comb of serrated bristles, which draw silk from the spinners and fling it over the prey. Only when the prey is securely wrapped in silk does the spider approach to bite. The prey is consumed in the retreat or at the part of the web where the spider usually takes up its position if no retreat is used. The wrapping technique enable theridiids to overpower prey many times their own size. A few species have more or less abandoned web building and live as active hunters at ground level, for example Steatoda phalerata. Some males possess ridges at rear of carapace opposed by teeth under the front end of the abdomen. Rapid movement of the abdomen while scraping the teeth against the ridges produce a sound, which is sometimes audible. The sound is used in courtship along with plucking and tapping the female web with palps and legs. The egg sacks are placed in the web or hidden inside the retreats and guarded by the female. Some females move the egg sacks to different positions during the day to optimize the climatic conditions. The family is represented with 4 species in Greenland, each in their own genus. All species seem to be confined to the southern parts of the country.
Characters of family: The theridiids belong to a group of araneomorph, ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. They are often referred to as comb-footed spiders because tarsus IV of most species possess a row of slightly curved serrated bristles. This comb is visible with a lens in larger species. However, this comb is often difficult to discern in smaller species and males, even under the stereomicroscope. Other important diagnostic characters for the family include that the theridiids do not have the labium rebordered as opposed to the related families Araneidae, Linyphiidae, and Nesticidae. Also, they have few or no spines on their legs. Finally, the male palp is without a conspicuous paracymbium as in the Araneidae, Linyphiidae, Nesticidae, and Tetragnathidae. The carapace is very variable in shape among species, sometimes modified in males in to strange lobes not unlike those seen in the Linyphiidae. A few genera have rugose carapaces due to dense coverage of pits and warts, the latter sometimes hairy (for example Crustulina and Steatoda). In some species the carapace is almost circular and appears small relatively to the size of the abdomen. The clypeus is often very high. The sternum is triangular to shield-shaped (scutiform). It is domed in some species, for example in Theonoe minutissima. The eyes are sometimes subequal and sometimes of very different sizes. They are arranged in 2 rows of 4, the eyes of each row often equidistant. Lateral eyes are often situated close together or contiguous (for example Pholcomma and Theonoe). The secondary eyes are very often provided with a tapetum. The chelicerae are usually small and weak but some species with cheliceral apophyses may have long chelicers. Promargin with few teeth (0-3) while retromargin usually have none. The shape of endites is variable but usually they converge somewhat. The legs are moderately long to very long, lacking spines on femora, tibia, and metatarsus. The female palps possess a claw, which in the Hadrotarsinae subfamily is deeply clefted (palmate). The abdomen is very variable in shape from oval to round, sometimes globular or even higher than long. The abdomen sometimes extends over the posterior part of the carapace. In some species of the Argyrodinae subfamily the abdomen is extremely long and cylindrical. The colouration of the abdomen is also very variable as are the patterns. Some smaller species with unicoloured abdomens may resemble linyphiids. Species with sparsely haired abdomens often appear glossy. Colulus may be large and setose, small (represented just by the setae) or absent. The morphology of the colulus is often an important character in keys for theridiid genera. The tracheal spiracle is situated just in front of the spinners. Theridiids are entelegyne usually with well sclerotized epigynes. Tibia and patella of male palp are without apophyses. The palp does not have a paracymbium - just a hook on distal margin of cymbium serving as a locking device. The anterior edge of the male palpal tibia is often widened and provided with a row of long setae (e.g. in Theridion).
Genus: Enoplognatha Pavesi, 1880
Enoplognatha intrepida (Sørensen, 1898)
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Female abdominal markings.
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Genus: Ohlertidion Wunderlich, 2008
Ohlertidion lundbecki (Sørensen, 1898)
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Genus: Robertus O. P.-Cambridge, 1879
Characters of genus: The species resemble linyphiids because of the small size of the species and their oval unicoloured abdomens in shades of grey. The head region of the carapace is darker than the thoracic region. The two eye rows are fairly wide with each eye almost contiguous with the corresponding eye of the adjacent row. The abdomen is provided with two or three pairs of pale or reddish sigilla (dots marking points of internal muscle attachments). Legs are relatively short and differ from those of the linyphiids by possessing a comb on tarsi IV and by the tarsi being darker than femora.
Robertus fuscus (Emerton, 1894)
Genus: Thymoites Keyserling, 1884
Thymoites oleatus (L. Koch, 1879)
Family: Thomisidae (Typical Crab Spiders)
The Thomisidae is the sixth largest spider family of the world encompassing ca 2062 species in 7 subfamilies and 171 genera. They range in size from small to large (2-23 mm body size). Thomisids have sturdy, moderately depressed bodies and strong, laterigrade legs with legs I and II longer than III and IV in most subfamilies. They move around in a characteristic crab-like fashion being capable of walking sideways as well as forwards and backwards. There is a great diversity in colours and forms. Some more brightly coloured species are active during the day. They occupy blossoms or other parts of vegetation where they ambush prey, often pollinators much larger than themselves. Some species are even capable of changing colour over a period of hours to several days to match the colour of the flower petals in which they reside. Other ground and bark living species have markings in grey and brown giving excellent camouflage in these surroundings. Some Ozyptila species are covered by dirt making them very difficult to spot on the ground. They make no prey-catching webs and spin no retreats for moulting, oviposition, or wintering. The first two pairs of legs are used for grabbing the prey when it inattentively have become within grasp. Legs III and IV are provided with scopulae and help to anchor the spider to the substrate during the short struggle with the prey. Once bitten the prey dies within seconds due to the high potency of thomisid venom. Often there is a great disparity in size and colouration between males and females, the males usually being much smaller and darker than the females. The courtship involves the male touching the female in a way that makes her adopt a submissive posture. Females are frequently seen guarding their eggsack. The family is represented with two species in Greenland, both belonging to Xysticus. Apparently, the species have divided the country between them with no overlap in distribution. Xysticus deichmanni is known from northeast Greenland while Xysticus durus is known from south and southwest Greenland.
Characters of family: The thomisids belong to the group of araneomorph, ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 2 tarsal claws. The eyes are arranged in two recurved rows of four with the posterior row usually more curved than the anterior row. The median eyes are the smallest, the laterals on confluent tubercles, with the posterior laterals facing somewhat backwards. The secondary eyes are provided with tapetum. Thomisids belong to a morphologically very diverse family of spiders generally characterized by broad, moderately flattened carapace and abdomen. The carapace is about as long as wide being semicircular, ovoid or slightly elongated sometimes with protuberances. Usually, it is thinly covered by a few erect simple or clavate setae sometimes arising from warts. Most species have lateral bands on the carapace; sometimes the bands reach the edge. The sternum is heart-shaped. Chelicerae are relatively small and weak, adapted for quick kills by biting prey in the head. Cheliceral teeth are absent except in one subfamily. Sometimes there are small teeth (denticles) present on promargin. Endites and labium are frequently longer than wide. Legs I and II are longer and sturdier than legs III and IV. Legs articulate in plane of the body (laterigrade legs). The anterior legs are often provided with series of strong spines on tibia and metatarsi (e.g. Xysticus and Ozyptila). The abdomen is variable in shape and colour. It may be round, ovoid or elongate, nearly always widest at rear half. It is often covered by scattered simple setae or clavate hairs. Abdominal colours vary from bright hues of white, yellow, green, and pink to shades of grey and brown in obscure patterns. The anterior spinners are short and conical and situated close together. A colulus is present in front of the spinners. The tracheal spiracle is situated close to the spinners. The epigyne is small and weakly sclerotized in some species. The epigynes of Xysticus species can be highly variable in depth of sclerotization within the same species and females are therefore sometimes difficult to identify by examination of epigynes. The tibia of the male palp is provided with ventral and retrolateral apophyses. Embolus is often long and curved along the rim of the cymbium.
Genus: Xysticus C. L. Koch, 1835 - Ground crab spiders
Characters of genus: These spiders are medium sized and crablike. Most species are in various shades of brown and grey with patterns made of white and yellow blotches and bars. Males are often darker than females and with more vivid tints. The carapace is brownish with central whitish-yellow band enclosing a darker triangle behind the posterior eyes and pointing backwards. The carapace is armed with long black spines which are round, Hereby they differ from the related genus, Ozyptila which have short blunt or clavate spines. The median ocular trapezium forms almost a square or is slightly wider than long. The anterior lateral eyes are clearly larger than the rest, the lateral eyes of both rows on independent tubercles. The abdomen is wider at rear bearing a folium dorsally and usually with white blotches and transverse bars. The legs are short, stout and spiny. Most species ambush prey on low vegetation, while others are found in leaf litter, under stones and bark.
Xysticus deichmanni (Sørensen, 1898)
Xysticus durus (Sørensen, 1898)
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Literature
This list mostly contains references to literature specific to the Greenlandic spider fauna published from 1900 to present time. See Larsen, S. & Scharff, N. 2003 for older references or Marusik, Y.M. (In prep.) as an entry point for references to literature dealing with arctic spiders in general or spiders of other arctic areas.
Agnarsson I. (1996). Íslenskar köngulær (Icelandic spiders). Fjölrit Náttúrufræðistofnunar 31: 1-175.
Brændegård, J. (1937). Spiders (Araneina) from southeast Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 108(4): 1-15.
Brændegård, J. (1938). Aeronautic spiders in the Arctic. Meddelelser om Grønland 119(5): 1-9.
Brændegård, J. (1939). Arctosa alpigena Doleschall 1852 og Arctosa omdohmoys Thorell 1872. Meddelelser om Grønland 108(7): 1-12.
Brændegård, J. (1940). Spiders (Araneina) from northeast Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 125(8): 1-31.
Brændegård, J. (1960). The spiders (Araneida) of Peary Land, North Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 159(6): 1-24.
Brændegård, J. (1946). The spiders (Araneina) of East Greenland. A faunistic and zoogeographical investigation. Meddelelser om Grønland 121(5): 1-128.
Brændegård, J. (1934). Preliminary statement of the synonymity of certain Greenland spiders. Videnskabelige Meddeleleser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, 98: 47-48.
Brændegård, J. (1935). Aranea. In: The Scoresby Sound 2nd East Greenland Expedition in 1932 to King Christian IX's Land. Meddelelser om Grønland 104(16): 16-18.
Böcher, J. (2003). Insekter og andre smådyr - i Grønlands fjeld og ferskvand. [Contains chapter on Greenlandic spiders written by S. Larsen:] Edderkopper - ordenen Araneae pp 243-280. Atuagkat Press, Nuuk.
Carpenter, G.D.H. & Holm, Å. (1939). Insecta and Aranea collected in the Kangerdlusuak Region of East Greenland by the British Expedition, 1935-36. Annual Magazine of Natural History, 11(3): 60-79.
Cotton, M.J. (1979). A collection of spiders from north-east Greenland. Arctic, 32(1): 71-75.
Dondale, C.D. & Redner, J.H. (1978). The crab spiders of Canada and Alaska. Araneae: Philodromidae and Thomisidae. The Insects and Arachnids of Canada, Part 5. Biosystematics Research Institute (Ottawa), Publication 1663: 1-255.
Dondale, C.D. & Redner, J.H. (1982). The sac spiders of Canada and Alaska. Araneae: Clubionidae and Anyphaenidae. The Insects and Arachnids of Canada, Part 9. Biosystematics Research Institute (Ottawa), Publication 1724: 1-194.
Foelix, R.F. (1982). Biology of Spiders. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 306 pp.
Henriksen, K.L. & Lundbeck, W. (1917). Grønlands Landarthropoder (Insecta et Arachnida Groenlandicae). Meddelelser om Grønland 22: 483-821.
Hillyard, P.D. (1979). Notes on two collections of spiders from Baffin Island and Greenland. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 4(7):296-297.
Holm, Å. (1939). Araneae. In Hale Carpenter, G. D., & Е. Holm, Insecta and Araneae collected in the Kangerdlugsuak Region of East Greenland by the British Expedition, 1935-36. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (11) 3: 72-80.
Holm, Å. (1958). Spiders (Araneae) from Greenland. Arkiv för Zoologi 11: 525-534.
Holm, Å. (1967). Spiders (Araneae) from west Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 184(1): 5-99.
Holm, Å. (1937). Notes on the spider fauna of East Greenland. Arkiv för Zoologi 29B(12):1-2.
Jocqué, R. & Dippenaar-Schoeman, A.S. (2007). Spider families of the world (2nd edition). Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium. ISBN:978-90-74752-11-4.
Koponen, S. (1982). Spiders (Araneae) from Narssaq, southern Greenland. Ent. Meddr., 49(3), 117-119.
Larsen, S. & Rasmussen, T.D. (1999). Rapid assessment of spider species richness in the Arctic (Disko, West greenland). Berichte zur Polarforschung 330: 76-77.
Larsen, S. & Scharff, N. (2003). The spiders of Greenland – a checklist (Aracnida: Araneae). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 71(1): 53-61.
Locket, G.H. & Millidge, A.F. (1951). British Spiders, Vol. 1. Ray Society (London) Publication No. 135, ix, 310 pp.
Locket, G.H. & Millidge, A.F. (1953). British Spiders, Vol. 2. Ray Society (London) Publication No. 137, vi, 449 pp.
Marusik, Y.M. (in prep.). [Key to Greenlandic spiders (Title unknown)].
Marusik, Y.M., Böcher, J. & Koponen, S. (2006). The collection of Greenland spiders (Aranei) kept in the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. Arthropoda Selecta, 15(1): 59–80.
Nentwig W., Hänggi A., Kropf C. & Blick T. (2003). Spinnen Mitteleuropas/Central European Spiders. An internet identification key. http://www.araneae.unibe.ch Version 8.12.2003.
Saaristo, M I. & Marusik, Y.M. (2004). Revision of the Holarctic spider genus Oreoneta Kulczynski, 1894 (Arachnida: Aranei: Linyphiidae). Arthropoda Selecta 12: 207-249.
Links
Checklist of Spider Species from Greenland
The Nearctic Spider Database
The World Spider Catalog by Platnick
The Spiders of Greenland
Images and Species Descriptions
© 2011 Jørgen Lissner