- only species with images listed
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Theridiidae (Comb-footed Spiders)
Biology: The Theridiidae is the fifth largest spider family of the world encompassing ca 2280 species in 6 subfamilies and 96 genera. They are extremely variable in shape and colouration with some species appearing fairly robust (for example Steatoda) while other delicate (for example thin-legged species such as Ariamnes). They range in size from very small to medium-sized (1-22 mm body size). I consider the fine whip spider Ariamnes (Argyrodes) colubrinus a medium-sized spider despite a body length of 22 mm because of the whip-like, extremely elongated abdomen. Most theridiid species build irregular three-dimensional space webs with criss cross threads. Some species use a retreat, usually placed inside the web. The spider often sits inverted in the web or hidden in the retreat but will run for cover or drop from the web if disturbed. They overpower their prey by wrapping it with sticky silk by activity of the hind legs. These are provided with a comb of serrated bristles, which draw silk from the spinners and fling it over the prey. Only when the prey is securely wrapped in silk does the spider approach to bite. The prey is consumed in the retreat or at the part of the web where the spider usually takes up its position if no retreat is used. The wrapping technique enable theridiids to overpower prey many times their own size. A few species have more or less abandoned web building and live as active hunters at ground level, for example Steatoda phalerata. Some males possess ridges at rear of carapace opposed by teeth under the front end of the abdomen. Rapid movement of the abdomen while scraping the teeth against the ridges produce a sound, which is sometimes audible. The sound is used in courtship along with plucking and tapping the female web with palps and legs. The egg sacks are placed in the web or hidden inside the retreats and guarded by the female. Some females move the egg sacks to different positions during the day to optimize the climatic conditions.
Characters of family: The theridiids belong to a group of araneomorph, ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. They are often referred to as comb-footed spiders because tarsus IV of most species possess a row of slightly curved serrated bristles. This comb is visible with a lens in larger species. However, this comb is often difficult to discern in smaller species and males, even under the stereomicroscope. Other important diagnostic characters for the family include that the theridiids do not have the labium rebordered as opposed to the related families Araneidae, Linyphiidae, and Nesticidae. Also, they have few or no spines on their legs. Finally, the male palp is without a conspicuous paracymbium as in the Araneidae, Linyphiidae, Nesticidae, and Tetragnathidae. The carapace is very variable in shape among species, sometimes modified in males in to strange lobes not unlike those seen in the Linyphiidae. A few genera have rugose carapaces due to dense coverage of pits and warts, the latter sometimes hairy (for example Crustulina and Steatoda). In some species the carapace is almost circular and appears small relatively to the size of the abdomen. The clypeus is often very high. The sternum is triangular to shield-shaped (scutiform). It is domed in some species, for example in Theonoe minutissima. The eyes are sometimes subequal and sometimes of very different sizes. They are arranged in 2 rows of 4, the eyes of each row often equidistant. Lateral eyes are often situated close together or contiguous (for example Pholcomma and Theonoe). The secondary eyes are very often provided with a tapetum. The chelicerae are usually small and weak but some species with cheliceral apophyses may have long chelicers. Promargin with few teeth (0-3) while retromargin usually have none. The shape of endites is variable but usually they converge somewhat. The legs are moderately long to very long, lacking spines on femora, tibia, and metatarsus. The female palps possess a claw, which in the Hadrotarsinae subfamily is deeply clefted (palmate). The abdomen is very variable in shape from oval to round, sometimes globular or even higher than long. The abdomen sometimes extends over the posterior part of the carapace. In some species of the Argyrodinae subfamily the abdomen is extremely long and cylindrical. The colouration of the abdomen is also very variable as are the patterns. Some smaller species with unicoloured abdomens may resemble linyphiids. Species with sparsely haired abdomens often appear glossy. Colulus may be large and setose, small (represented just by the setae) or absent. The morphology of the colulus is often an important character in keys for theridiid genera. The tracheal spiracle is situated just in front of the spinners. Theridiids are entelegyne usually with well sclerotized epigynes. Tibia and patella of male palp are without apophyses. The palp does not have a paracymbium - just a hook on distal margin of cymbium serving as a locking device. The anterior edge of the male palpal tibia is often widened and provided with a row of long setae (e.g. in Theridion).
This family is represented in Europe with 255 species in 49 genera (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009). European genera (number of species in parenthesis): Achaearanea (2), Achaeridion (1), Argyrodes (3), Ariamnes (1), Asagena (5), Canalidion (1), Carniella (1), Chrysso (2), Coleosoma (1), Coscinida (1), Crustulina (4), Cryptachaea (4), Dipoena (17), Dipoenata (4), Echinotheridion (1), Enoplognatha (26), Episinus (8), Euryopis (14), Eurypoena (2), Hadrotarsus (1), Heterotheridion (1), Kochiura (1), Lasaeola (4), Latrodectus (6), Macaridion (1), Melos (1), Neospintharus (1), Neottiura (6), Nesticodes (1), Ohlertidion (2), Paidiscura (5), Parasteatoda (4), Pholcomma (1), Phoroncidia (2), Phycosoma (1), Phylloneta (3), Platnickina (2), Rhomphaea (2), Robertus (18), Ruborridion (0), Rugathodes (6), Sardinidion (1), Seycellocesa (2), Simitidion (3), Steatoda (16), Theonoe (5), Theridion (56), Theridula (2), Thymoites (2), Tidarren (1).
Genus: Achaearanea Strand, 1929
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Achaearanea dubitabilis.
Achaearanea dubitabilis Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Achaeridion Wunderlich, 2008
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Achaeridion conigerum.
Achaeridion conigerum (Simon, 1914)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Poland, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male, abdominal markings.
Genus: Argyrodes Simon, 1864
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Argyrodes argyrodes, A. incertus, A. rostratus.
Argyrodes argyrodes (Walckenaer, 1842)
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Malta, Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to West Africa, Seychelles (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Asagena Sundevall, 1833
There are 5 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Asagena brignolii, A. italica, A. meridionalis, A. phalerata, A. pulcher.
Asagena phalerata (Panzer, 1801)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Subadult male.
Male.
Genus: Crustulina Menge, 1868
Characters of genus: The carapace is provided with pits and hairy warts and appears rugose. The eyes are subequal in size. The clypeus is very high - more than six times the diameter of an anterior median eye. Sternum also rugose and extended between coxae IV. The abdomen is globose. Colulus large and provided with two bristles. A stridulating organ is present.
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Crustulina albovittata, C. guttata, C. scabripes, C. sticta.
Crustulina guttata (Wider, 1834) - White-spotted comb-foot
Description: Carapace and abdomen dark reddish brown with a tint of purple. The abdominal markings are very characteristic in this species with white dots arranged in three longitudinal rows. The legs are fairly long and slender with clear annulations. Size: Female 1.9-2.2 mm; male 1.9-2.1 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands?, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Crustulina scabripes Simon, 1881
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Mainland), Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Crustulina sticta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1861)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Netherlands, Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Cryptachaea Archer, 1946
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Cryptachaea blattea, C. pusillana, C. riparia, C. veruculata.
Cryptachaea blattea (Urquhart, 1886)
Range: Belgium (introduced), Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Palp and epigyne.
Male.
Cryptachaea riparia (Blackwall, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Dipoena Thorell, 1869
There are 17 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Dipoena braccata, D. coracina, D. croatica, D. erythropus, D. grancanariensis, D. latifrons, D. lindholmi, D. lugens, D. melanogaster, D. nigroreticulata, D. praecelsa, D. sedilloti, D. sericata, D. striata, D. torva, D. umbratilis.
Dipoena braccata (C. L. Koch, 1841)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Dipoena melanogaster (C. L. Koch, 1837)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Dipoena torva (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Genus: Dipoenata Wunderlich, 1988
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Dipoenata cana, D. canariensis, D. flavitarsis, D. longitarsis.
Dipoenata canariensis (Wunderlich, 1987)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Echinotheridion Levi, 1963
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Echinotheridion gibberosum.
Echinotheridion gibberosum (Kulczynski, 1899)
Range: Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira, Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Subadult male, note just one palp, the second palp has been self-amputated (emasculated).
Subadult male.
Genus: Enoplognatha Pavesi, 1880
There are 26 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Enoplognatha afrodite, E. almeriensis, E. biskrensis, E. caricis, E. diversa, E. franzi, E. gemina, E. giladensis, E. intrepida, E. latimana, E. macrochelis, E. mandibularis, E. mariae, E. mediterranea, E. mordax, E. nigromarginata, E. oelandica, E. ovata, E. parathoracica , E. penelope, E. quadripunctata, E. sattleri, E. serratosignata, E. testacea, E. thoracica, E. verae.
Enoplognatha diversa (Blackwall, 1859)
Range: France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira, Canary Is, Spain, Morocco to Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Enoplognatha intrepida (Sørensen, 1898)
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: USA, Canada, Alaska, Greenland (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Enoplognatha latimana Hippa & Oksala, 1982
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary?, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Enoplognatha mandibularis (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Lithuania, Malta, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female with eggsack.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Enoplognatha mordax (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Enoplognatha ovata (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Enoplognatha quadripunctata Simon, 1884
Range: France (Corsica), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Enoplognatha sattleri Bösenberg, 1895
Range: Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira, Salvages, Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Enoplognatha testacea Simon, 1884
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Portugal (Mainland), Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern, Central Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Enoplognatha thoracica (Hahn, 1833)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete)?, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Episinus Walckenaer, in Latreille, 1809
There are 8 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Episinus albescens, E. algiricus, E. angulatus, E. cavernicola, E. maculipes, E. maderianus, E. theridioides, E. truncatus.
Episinus algiricus Lucas, 1846
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France, Italy, Northwest Africa (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Episinus angulatus (Blackwall, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male, palp.
Male.
Male.
Juvenile.
Male.
Episinus maculipes Cavanna, 1876
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Mainland), Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: England to Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Episinus maderianus Kulczynski, 1905
Range: Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Eggsack.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Episinus truncatus Latreille, 1809
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Euryopis Menge, 1868
There are 14 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Euryopis chatchikovi, E. dentigera, E. duodecimguttata, E. episinoides, E. flavomaculata, E. giordanii, E. haematostigma (nomen dubium), E. laeta, E. margaritata, E. mutoloi, E. orsovensis, E. quinqueguttata, E. saukea, E. sexalbomaculata.
Euryopis episinoides (Walckenaer, 1847)
Range: Belgium (introduced), Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean, China (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Euryopis flavomaculata (C. L. Koch, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Juvenile.
Female.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Female.
Juvenile.
Euryopis quinqueguttata Thorell, 1875
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Turkmenistan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Eurypoena Wunderlich, 1992
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Eurypoena tuberosa, E. tuberosa alegranzaensis.
Eurypoena tuberosa (Wunderlich, 1987)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Genus: Heterotheridion Wunderlich, 2008
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Heterotheridion nigrovariegatum.
Heterotheridion nigrovariegatum (Simon, 1873)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female, venter.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female abdominal markings.
Genus: Kochiura Archer, 1950
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Kochiura aulica.
Kochiura aulica (C. L. Koch, 1838)
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Malta, Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European)?, Russia (Southern European), Slovenia?, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is, Cape Verde Is to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Lasaeola Simon, 1881
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Lasaeola convexa, L. oceanica, L. prona, L. testaceomarginata, L. tristis.
Lasaeola convexa (Blackwall, 1870)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Lasaeola oceanica Simon, 1883
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Lasaeola tristis (Hahn, 1833)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Tajikistan (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Macaridion Wunderlich, 1992
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Macaridion barreti.
Macaridion barreti (Kulczynski, 1899)
Range: Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Genus: Neottiura Menge, 1868
There are 6 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Neottiura bimaculata, N. bimaculata pellucida, N. curvimana, N. herbigrada, N. suaveolens, N. uncinata.
Neottiura bimaculata (Linnaeus, 1767)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female with egg sack.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Neottiura uncinata (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Bulgaria, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Ohlertidion Wunderlich, 2008
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Ohlertidion lundbecki, O. ohlerti.
Ohlertidion lundbecki (Sørensen, 1898)
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Greenland (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Paidiscura Archer, 1950
There are 5 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Paidiscura dromedaria, P. orotavensis, P. pallens, P. pinicola.
Paidiscura dromedaria (Simon, 1880)
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: North Africa to Middle East, Cape Verde Is. (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Paidiscura orotavensis (Schmidt, 1968)
Range: Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is, Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Male.
Female, venter.
Male.
Female, note pair of humps on abdomen.
Paidiscura pallens (Blackwall, 1834)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Parasteatoda Archer, 1946
Characters of genus: Carapace slightly longer than wide. Eyes subequal. The anterior row is recurved while the posterior row is nearly straight. Clypeus about three time higher than diameter of anterior median eye. Abdomen of female is higher than long.
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Parasteatoda lunata, P. simulans, P. tabulata, P. tepidariorum.
Parasteatoda lunata (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female with egg sack.
Parasteatoda simulans (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Azores), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Parasteatoda tabulata Levi, 1980
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (NW. European), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Parasteatoda tepidariorum (C. L. Koch, 1841) - Glasshouse comb-foot
Description: The carapace is yellowish brown to dark brown. The abdomen is greyish brown with indistinct whitish chevrons and streaks. Some specimens have blackish markings in the centre area of the dorsum. Male have uniformly coloured orange to reddish brown legs while females have darker annuli at the apical ends of segments. Males are generally more orange than females. Size: Female 5-7 mm; male 3-4.5 mm. Maturity: Adult specimens are found at all seasons. Habitat: This spider is common spider in southern temperate regions but also inhabit greenhouses in cooler regions. Range: Austria, Belarus?, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands (introduced), Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female, abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Subadult female.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Palp and epigyne.
Genus: Pholcomma Thorell, 1869
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Pholcomma gibbum.
Pholcomma gibbum (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male, note scutum on abdomen and characteristic embolus of palp.
Female abdomen.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Subadult male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Phoroncidia Westwood, 1835
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Phoroncidia hankiewiczi, P. paradoxa.
Phoroncidia paradoxa (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male, abdominal markings.
Subadult male.
Genus: Phycosoma O. P.-Cambridge, 1879
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Phycosoma inornatum.
Phycosoma inornatum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1861)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine?, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Phylloneta Archer, 1950
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Phylloneta impressa, P. sisyphia, P. sisyphia foliifera.
Phylloneta impressa (L. Koch, 1881)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female guarding eggsack.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings (light colourform from Greece).
Female.
Female.
Female with spiderlings.
Female.
Female with spiderlings.
Female.
Phylloneta sisyphia (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Eggsack.
Female guarding eggsack.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Platnickina Koçak & Kemal, 2008
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Platnickina nigropunctata, P. tincta.
Platnickina nigropunctata (Lucas, 1846)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1).
Male.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Platnickina tincta (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1).
Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Female, abdominal markings.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female, markings on sternum.
Female.
Genus: Rhomphaea L. Koch, 1872
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Rhomphaea longicaudata, R. nasica, R. rostrata.
Rhomphaea longicaudata O. P.-Cambridge, 1872
Range: Greece (Dodecanese Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece, Lebanon (Platnick 10.0).
Female, epigyne in posterior view (id?).
Female, epigyne (id?).
Female (uncertain id - female not yet linked with male).
Female (uncertain id).
Female, prosoma in lateral view (id?).
Female (uncertain id).
Rhomphaea nasica (Simon, 1873)
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean, Africa, St Helena (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult female.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult female.
Subadult male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult male.
Genus: Robertus O. P.-Cambridge, 1879
Biology: The species live at ground level in detritus, under stones, in moss, leaflitter. Sometimes also under algal upwash and in cracks in the ground.
Characters of genus: The species resemble linyphiids because of the small size of the species and their oval unicoloured abdomens in shades of grey. The head region of the carapace is darker than the thoracic region. The two eye rows are fairly wide with each eye almost contiguous with the corresponding eye of the adjacent row. The abdomen is provided with two or three pairs of pale or reddish sigilla (dots marking points of internal muscle attachments). Legs are relatively short and differ from those of the linyphiids by possessing a comb on tarsi IV and by the tarsi being darker than femora.
There are 18 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Robertus alpinus, R. arundineti, R. cantabricus, R. cardesensis, R. frivaldszkyi, R. fuscus, R. heydemanni, R. insignis, R. kuehnae, R. lividus, R. lyrifer, R. mazaurici, R. mediterraneus, R. monticola, R. neglectus, R. scoticus, R. truncorum, R. ungulatus.
Robertus arundineti (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871) - Fen leaden-colored comb-foot
Description: Carapace, legs and sternum reddish brown. The abdomen vary in colour from light to dark grey sometimes brownish grey. Patella and femora lighter than remaining leg segments. Size: Female 2.2-2.7 mm; male 2-2.3 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands?, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile with parasitic mite.
Juvenile.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Robertus lividus (Blackwall, 1836) - Common leaden-colored comb-foot
Description: Carapace yellowish brown to dark brown usually distinctly darker in head region. Chelicers dark brown. Legs coloured as thoracic part of carapace with apical segments darker. Epigynal atrium large and shallow visible as a large dark area. Dorsum of abdomen in various shades of grey sometimes brownish grey. Sigilla usually reddish brown. Size: Female 3-4 mm; male 2.8-3.2 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Robertus scoticus Jackson, 1914
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Robertus ungulatus Vogelsanger, 1944
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Poland, Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Ruborridion Wunderlich, 2011
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Ruborridion musivum.
Ruborridion musivum Simon, 1873
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Rugathodes Archer, 1950
There are 6 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Rugathodes acoreensis, R. aurantius, R. bellicosus, R. instabilis, R. madeirensis, R. pico.
Rugathodes acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Rugathodes instabilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Genus: Sardinidion Wunderlich, 1995
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Sardinidion blackwalli.
Sardinidion blackwalli (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia, Ukraine, North Africa (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Seycellocesa Koçak & Kemal, 2008
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Seycellocesa pulchellus, S. vittatus.
Seycellocesa pulchellus (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Belgium, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Russia, North Africa (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Seycellocesa vittatus (C. L. Koch, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female with egg sack.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Simitidion Wunderlich, 1992
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Simitidion agaricographum, S. lacuna, S. simile.
Simitidion lacuna Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is, Spain, North Africa, Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Simitidion simile (C. L. Koch, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Steatoda Sundevall, 1833
Characters of genus: Many species of this genus have a light band along the anterior edge of the abdomen. Males are able to produce sounds during courtship by scraping teeth on the abdomen against a file on the rear of the carapace.
There are 16 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Steatoda albomaculata, S. albomaculata infuscata, S. bimaculata (nomen dubium), S. bipunctata, S. castanea, S. distincta, S. erigoniformis, S. grossa, S. grossa obliterata, S. incomposita, S. latifasciata, S. latrodectoides, S. maura, S. nobilis, S. paykulliana, S. trianguloides, S. triangulosa.
Steatoda albomaculata (De Geer, 1778)
Description: It is a beautiful, black spider with paired spots on the abdomen and a narrow band around the front margin. The colours of the markings are either white, pale yellow or pink. Habitat: Steatoda albomaculata occurs among stones or low vegetation in sandy places, usually south facing slopes. Often the web is built near a stone under which the spider can seek protection if disturbed. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Female with a rather shrivelled abdomen due to recent egg-laying..
Dark female.
Subadult male abdominal markings.
Male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male abdominal markings.
Steatoda bipunctata (Linnaeus, 1758) - Common false-widow
Description: The carapace is rugose, dark brown to black. Legs are reddish brown annulated with dark brown. The abdomen is brown sometimes blackish with characteristics whitish markings along the midline and anterior edge. Only rarely are these markings absent. Size: Female 5-7 mm; male 4.5-5.5 mm. Habitat: Steatoda bipunctata is a common house spider, but is also sometimes found in forests, usually under loose bark on tree trunks. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands (introduced), Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Steatoda castanea (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Canada, introduced) (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Steatoda grossa (C. L. Koch, 1838) - False black widow
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Steatoda latifasciata (Simon, 1873)
Range: Italy (Sicily), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is, Morocco to Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female, abdominal markings.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Steatoda nobilis (Thorell, 1875)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira, Canary Is (England, introduced) (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male. Note the ridges used for sound production at rear of carapace.
Male.
Male.
Female abdomen.
Female.
Female, tarsus IV with comb of serrated bristles.
Female, eyes.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Steatoda paykulliana (Walckenaer, 1805)
Range: Austria, Belgium (introduced), Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Mediterranean to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Juvenile male, abdominal markings.
Male.
Juvenile male.
Male abdominal markings.
Juvenile male.
Male.
Steatoda trianguloides Levy, 1991
Range: France (Corsica) (van Helsdingen 2009.1).
Male (new to Europe?).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Steatoda triangulosa (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Eggsack.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male abdominal markings.
Female.
Genus: Theonoe Simon, 1881
There are 5 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Theonoe formivora, T. major, T. mihaili, T. minutissima, T. sola.
Theonoe minutissima (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Central European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Theridion Walckenaer, 1805
There are 56 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Theridion adrianopoli, T. affine (nomen dubium), T. alveolus (nomen dubium), T. auratum (nomen dubium), T. betteni, T. bicolor (nomen dubium), T. boesenbergi, T. candefactum (nomen dubium), T. carpathium, T. cinereum, T. corcyraeum, T. crinigerum, T. elimatum, T. familiare, T. furfuraceum, T. genistae, T. gentile, T. glaucinum, T. grancanariense, T. hannoniae, T. harmsi, T. helena, T. hemerobium, T. histrionicum, T. innocuum, T. italiense, T. kollari, T. laevigatum, T. lapidicola, T. melanoplax, T. melanostictum, T. melanurum, T. musivivum, T. mystaceum, T. nasutum, T. nebulosum (nomen dubium), T. negebense, T. ochreolum, T. pallasi, T. palmgreni, T. parvulum, T. petraeum, T. pictum, T. pinastri, T. prominens, T. pyrenaeum, T. refugum, T. semitinctum, T. sibiricum, T. tenellum, T. tibiale, T. tigrae, T. uhligi, T. undulatum, T. varians, T. varians melanotum, T. varians rusticum, T. wiehlei.
Theridion genistae (Simon, 1873)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean to Uzbekistan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Theridion hannoniae Denis, 1944
Range: Belgium, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa, Madeira, Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female, reddish specimen.
Male.
Female, abdominal markings (dark specimen).
Female.
Male.
Female, reddish specimen.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female, note the characteristic pair of white blotches on venter.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Theridion harmsi Wunderlich, 2011
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal, Spain, France, Mallorca (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Theridion helena Wunderlich, 2011
Range: Greece (Crete) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Female abdominal markings (id?).
Female (id?).
Female (id?).
Female (id?).
Theridion hemerobium Simon, 1914
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Netherlands, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: USA, Canada, Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Theridion melanostictum O. P.-Cambridge, 1876
Range: Cyprus, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean, Aldabra, Seychelles, China, Japan, USA, Hispaniola (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female, abdominal markings (markings are variable among specimens).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831
Range: Andorra, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic, Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Theridion musivivum Schmidt, 1956
Range: Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female, abdominal markings.
Epigyne.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Theridion mystaceum L. Koch, 1870
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Cocoon.
Female.
Male.
Theridion pictum (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Theridion pinastri L. Koch, 1872
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Theridion uhligi Martin, 1974
Range: Belgium, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Theridion varians Hahn, 1833
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.