- only species with images listed
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Salticidae (Jumping spiders)
Biology: The family is species rich with most species occurring in warmer parts of the world. Almost all species can be assigned to genus level on the basis of their general appearance. However, identifying the spiders to species level of some genera require microscopic examination.
Characters of family: Small to medium-sized, shortlegged spiders easily recognizable by the characteristic eyes arranged in three rows. The anterior row of eyes is situated on a more or less vertical face, the medians being very large, the laterals somewhat smaller and set higher on the head. The second row of eyes consists of two very small, often minute or vestigial eyes set further back on the head. The two eyes of the posterior row are about the same size as the anterior laterals, and are set about halfway back on the carapace at the edges of the head. The anterior medians are highly sophisticated providing acute vision used to leap accurately while moving around as well as capturing prey and escape efforts.
This family is represented in Europe with 394 species in 50 genera (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009). European genera (number of species in parenthesis): Aelurillus (27), Afraflacilla (1), Asianellus (2), Attulus (2), Ballus (8), Bianor (2), Carrhotus (1), Chalcoscirtus (13), Cyrba (1), Dendryphantes (9), Eris (1), Euophrys (31), Evarcha (8), Habrocestum (8), Hasarius (1), Heliophanillus (1), Heliophanus (39), Hyllus (1), Icius (10), Leptorchestes (5), Macaroeris (8), Marpissa (5), Mendoza (1), Menemerus (8), Mogrus (4), Myrmarachne (4), Neaetha (3), Neon (10), Pancorius (1), Panysinus (1), Pellenes (19), Phidippus (1), Philaeus (6), Phintella (1), Phlegra (12), Plexippoides (2), Plexippus (2), Pseudeuophrys (7), Pseudicius (9), Roeweriella (1), Saitis (6), Salticus (39), Scartes (1), Sibianor (3), Sitticus (29), Synageles (8), Talavera (13), Telamonia (1), Thyene (2), Yllenus (16).
Genus: Aelurillus Simon, 1884
Characters of genus: The genus Aelurillus is separated from the remaining salticid genera by the following combination of characters: ocular trapezium appreciably broader than long, tarsi of legs I and II with dense scopolae, and legs IV longer than legs III. The latter character separates the genus from Phlegra which has legs IV shorter than legs III.
There are 27 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Aelurillus aeruginosus, A. balearus, A. blandus, A. bosmansi, A. candidus (nomen dubium), A. concolor, A. cretensis, A. cypriotus, A. guecki, A. iciformis, A. kochi, A. laniger, A. leipoldae, A. lopadusae, A. lucasi, A. luctuosus, A. m-nigrum, A. monardi, A. politiventris, A. schembrii, A. simoni, A. simplex, A. steinmetzi, A. steliosi, A. v-insignitus, A. v-insignitus morulus, A. v-insignitus obsoletus.
Aelurillus lucasi Roewer, 1951
Range: Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is, Salvages (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
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Juvenile.
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Juvenile.
Juvenile.
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Aelurillus luctuosus (Lucas, 1846)
Range: France (Corsica), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to Turkmenistan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
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Male.
Aelurillus v-insignitus (Clerck, 1757)
Description: Medium-sized spider with the front of the head high and relatively narrow, despite fairly broad carapace. Female with black carapace, sparsely clothed with long black hairs and densely covered with white squamose hairs. Characteristic white patches are present below the lateral eyes of the anterior row. Abdomen dark with long black hairs and dense light squamose hairs. Two rows of somewhat indistinct light dots are present along the midline. Legs dark, clearly ringed with white hairs. Male with v-shaped row of light hairs in the head area, a feature responsible for the latin species name. Abdomen black dorsally with light-brown median line. Legs similar to female, but legs I and palps with golden hairs. Size: Female 6-7 mm; male 4-5 mm. Maturity: May to July. Habitat: Open sandy or stony grounds exposed to sun, such as heathland, dunes and calcareous rocks. Range: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
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Genus: Afraflacilla Berland & Millot, 1941
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Afraflacilla epiblemoides.
Afraflacilla epiblemoides (Chyzer, 1891)
Description: (=Pseudicius epiblemoides). Range: Croatia, Czech Republic, Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central, Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
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Female peeking out from retreat.
Female.
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Male.
Subadult female.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Genus: Asianellus Logunov & Heciak, 1996
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Asianellus festivus, A. ontchalaan.
Asianellus festivus (C. L. Koch, 1834)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
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Genus: Ballus C. L. Koch, 1850
Characters of genus: The carapace is rather flat with the highest point is just behind the eyes. The width of the posterior row of eyes is about 1.25 times the width of the anterior row.
There are 8 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Ballus armadillo, B. chalybeius, B. lendli, B. obscuroides (nomen dubium), B. rufipes, B. sociabilis (nomen dubium), B. variegatus, B. vulpinus (nomen dubium).
Ballus chalybeius (Walckenaer, 1802)
Description: Small, compact spider with pale legs and characteristic leg annulations. The body is dark reddish-brown, rather thickly covered with pale yellow-brown hairs. There is a faint dark midline band on the abdomen with two likewise faint and dark transverse bands.Legs pale except for femora, patella and tibia og legs 1, which are partly or wholly darkened. The pale legs are furnished with some narrow, dark annulations which are very noticable in the field. The leg segments do not differ much in length. The male has legs I stouter than the rest. Size: Female 4.5-5 mm; male 3-4 mm. Maturity: May, June and July. Habitat: On the leaves of particularly oak trees on south facing slopes or forest edges. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Subadult male.
Ballus rufipes (Simon, 1868)
Range: France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Genus: Carrhotus Thorell, 1891
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Carrhotus xanthogramma.
Carrhotus xanthogramma (Latreille, 1819)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male abdomen.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Chalcoscirtus Bertkau, 1880
There are 13 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Chalcoscirtus alpicola, C. atratus, C. brevicymbialis, C. helverseni, C. hyperboreus, C. infimus, C. janetscheki, C. karakurt, C. nigritus, C. paraansobicus, C. pseudoinfimus, C. sublestus, C. tanasevichi.
Chalcoscirtus infimus (Simon, 1868)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern, Central Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
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Chalcoscirtus sublestus (Blackwall, 1867)
Range: Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Cyrba Simon, 1876
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Cyrba algerina.
Cyrba algerina (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Romania, Russia (Eastern European)?, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Subadult female.
Male.
Exuvium.
Juvenile.
Male.
Juvenile.
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Genus: Dendryphantes C. L. Koch, 1837
There are 9 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Dendryphantes auratus, D. bimaculatus (nomen dubium), D. fulviventris, D. hastatus, D. lanipes, D. petilus (nomen dubium), D. ravidus, D. riparius (nomen dubium), D. rudis.
Dendryphantes rudis (Sundevall, 1833)
Description: Female plumber than male, which is smaller, darker and with a greenish metallic lustre. Both sexes with two or three pairs of usually distinct white spots at the posterior end of abdomen. The male has a transverse row of white hairs above the anterior row of eyes, while in the female this row is below the row. Size: Female 5-6 mm; male 4.5-5 mm. Maturity: Mainly spring and summer. Habitat: Stems and branches of conifers. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
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Genus: Euophrys C. L. Koch, 1834
Characters of genus: Spiders of this genus and the closely related genus Pseudoeuophrys have the combined length of patella and tibia of legs IV about 1.25 to 1.5 times longer than the combined length of these two segments on legs III. The species of the genus differ hereby form the former member Talavera aequipes, in which the combined lengths of patella and tibia is almost the same for legs III and IV. Unlike the genusNeon, the posterior row of eyes is situated in front of the middle of the carapace. The majority of the species are qiute colourful, especially the males have handsome markings making the easy to identify by general appearance alone.
There are 31 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Euophrys acripes, E. alticola, E. baliola, E. canariensis, E. convergentis, E. difficilis, E. flavoatra, E. frontalis, E. gambosa, E. gambosa mediocris, E. herbigrada, E. innotata, E. littoralis, E. luteolineata, E. manicata, E. mottli, E. nigripalpis, E. nigritarsis, E. patellaris, E. pexa, E. rosenhaueri, E. rufibarbis, E. rufimana, E. sedula, E. semiglabrata, E. skalanicus (nomen dubium), E. striolata, E. sulphurea, E. terrestris, E. testaceozonata, E. uralensis.
Euophrys canariensis Denis, 1941
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Euophrys frontalis (Walckenaer, 1802)
Description: Female carapace brown with dark edges and head region. Abdomen yellow-brown with longitudinal rows of dark spots, those in the centerline often triangular in the posterior half. Legs uniform yellow-brown. Male carapace dark-brown with black head, sparsely covered with golden hairs. Anterior eyes each ringed with reddish-orange hairs. Palps are brown with contrasting white hairs on the upper and inner surfaces. Legs I and II dark or blackish and iridescent. The tarsi are greyish-white. Size: Female 3-4 mm; male 2-3 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer, females extending into autumn. Habitat: In low vegetation, leaf litter and debris or under stones in open places. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
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Female, abdominal markings.
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Euophrys gambosa (Simon, 1868)
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia?, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Euophrys sulphurea (L. Koch, 1867)
Range: Andorra, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Great Britain (Channel Islands), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Mainland), Slovenia? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern Europe, Syria (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
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Euophrys terrestris (Simon, 1871)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Portugal (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
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Genus: Evarcha Simon, 1902
Characters of genus: Medium-sized, stout spiders with the sexes usually very different in general appearance. The members of the genus are also very different, especially the males. The total length of patella and tibia IV is about the same or only slightly longer than that of leg IIII in contrast to the genera Sitticus, Euophrys and other related genera,.
There are 8 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Evarcha arcuata, E. eriki, E. falcata, E. falcata nigrofusca, E. flammata (nomen dubium), E. jucunda, E. laetabunda, E. michailovi.
Evarcha arcuata (Clerck, 1757)
Description: Female carapace with dark-brown, somewhat shiny head. Thorax brown,unevenly clothed with white hairs. Abdomen mottled with brown, white and black and with oblique streaks posteriorly in these colours, sometimes the streaks form chevrons. The male has a complete different appearance, almost uniform dark-brown to black and with a metallic sheen. Clypeus with two distinct transverse rows of white hairs, and below these, another transverse row is present on the chelicereae. Eyes of the anterior row are ringed with white hairs. The femur, patella and tibia og legs I are enlarged. Size: Female 6-8 mm; male 5-6 mm. Maturity: June to October. Habitat: In Denmark primarily wet heathland. In warmer climates the species is found in other wet habitats as well, typically damp meadows, riparian zones and wet undergrowth of open forests. Sometimes also at drier habitats. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
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Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Female.
Evarcha eriki Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Evarcha falcata (Clerck, 1757)
Description: Female carapace dark-brown with blackish, shiny head. Thorax clothed with brown hairs. Abdomen uniform reddish-brown or greyish-brown, sometimes dark spots are present at its sides. Male appear mottled. Carapace dark-brown or black with rather dense brown hairs in the head region. Sides of carapace with broad white or ligth brown bands joined in front by a transverse bar above the anterior row of eyes. Abdomen red-brown with black bands at sides with a narrow white band encircling folium. Femora I enlarged and black. Size: Female 6-8 mm; male 5 mm. Maturity: May to August. Habitat: Sunny forest edges and clearings, often on heather and other low vegetation. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia?, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
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Female.
Female.
Evarcha jucunda (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Belgium (introduced), Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany (introduced), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia?, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean, introduced in Belgium (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
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Female.
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Female abdominal markings.
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Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Genus: Habrocestum Simon, 1876
There are 8 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Habrocestum bovei, H. egaeum, H. graecum, H. ibericum, H. latifasciatum, H. ornaticeps, H. papilionaceum, H. pullatum.
Habrocestum egaeum Metzner, 1999
Range: Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece, Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Habrocestum graecum Dalmas, 1920
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Hasarius Simon, 1871
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Hasarius adansoni.
Hasarius adansoni (Audouin, 1826)
Range: Belgium (introduced), Czech Republic, Denmark (introduced), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland) (introduced), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Sicily), Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Heliophanus C. L. Koch, 1833
Characters of genus: These are dark, blackish spiders, usually with metallic sheen in green, violet or coppery colours. Some species are furnished with white bands or spots on the abdomen composed of white squamose hairs. The palps of the females are ligth brown in contrast to the overall dark appearance of the spider. The male palps are dark but furnished with white squamose hairs on forward directed surfaces. Some species have legs in light yellow colours while other have dark legs with white squamose hairs.
There are 39 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Heliophanus aeneus, H. agricola, H. agricoloides, H. apiatus, H. auratus, H. auratus mediocinctus, H. camtschadalicus, H. canariensis, H. creticus, H. cupreus, H. cupreus cuprescens, H. cupreus globifer, H. dampfi, H. decoratus, H. dubius, H. dunini, H. edentulus, H. encifer, H. equester, H. flavipes, H. fuerteventurae, H. furcillatus (nomen dubium), H. ibericus, H. kochii, H. koktas, H. lineiventris, H. melinus, H. minutissimus, H. mordax, H. nitidus (nomen dubium), H. patagiatus, H. potanini, H. ramosus, H. recurvus (nomen dubium), H. ritteri (nomen dubium), H. rufithorax, H. simplex, H. stylifer, H. tribulosus, H. uncinatus (nomen dubium).
Heliophanus agricoloides Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Male.
Subadult male.
Heliophanus apiatus Simon, 1868
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain to Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Heliophanus auratus C. L. Koch, 1835
Description: Rather uniformly coloured dark spider with purple metallic sheen. There is only a faint white band anteriorly on the abdomen. The palps of the female are light brown, while those of the male are dark with white squamose hairs on the forward directed surface. The same type of white hairs are present on the legs, however less pronounced in this species than in other members of the genus. Size: Female 4.5-5 mm; male 3.5-4.5 mm. Maturity: Summer. Habitat: Coastal boulders and shingle. Range: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Heliophanus cupreus (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Heliophanus dampfi Schenkel, 1923
Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland)?, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Heliophanus dubius C. L. Koch, 1835
Range: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Heliophanus equester L. Koch, 1867
Range: Croatia, Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Heliophanus flavipes (Hahn, 1832)
Description: The ligth yellow legs of the female are very much in contrast to the dark body. The few blacks streaks on the legs are usually confined to the femora of legs III and IV. Males are very similar to males of H. cupreus. Size: Female 5-6 mm; male 3.5-4 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: Low vegetation in a variety of habitats. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Heliophanus kochii Simon, 1868
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium (introduced), Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Heliophanus lineiventris Simon, 1868
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Heliophanus melinus L. Koch, 1867
Range: Andorra, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Romania, Russia (Central European)?, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Heliophanus rufithorax Simon, 1868
Range: Bulgaria, France (Corsica), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Heliophanus simplex Simon, 1868
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Moldova?, Romania, Russia (Eastern European)?, Slovakia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Heliophanus tribulosus Simon, 1868
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine?, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Genus: Icius Simon, 1876
There are 10 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Icius cervinus, I. congener, I. crassipes, I. erraticus (nomen dubium), I. hamatus, I. insolitus, I. lucasi (nomen dubium), I. miniamus (nomen dubium), I. nebulosus, I. subinermis.
Icius hamatus (C. L. Koch, 1846)
Range: Andorra, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Malta, Poland (introduced), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Icius subinermis Simon, 1937
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Netherlands (introduced), Portugal (Mainland), Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean, Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female (id?).
Female (id?).
Female (id?).
Female (id?).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Leptorchestes Thorell, 1870
Biology: The World Spider Catalog by Platnick lists 3 European species (see below). A fourth species L. sikorskii is listed only for Israel and Lebanon. But according to the Worldwide database of jumping spiders (Arachnida, Araneae, Salticidae) by Metzner this species is also found in western parts of Greece. The species is very similar to L. berolinensis (males differ only by minor details in palp structure).
There are 5 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Leptorchestes berolinensis, L. cinctus (nomen dubium), L. mutilloides, L. peresi, L. sikorskii.
Leptorchestes berolinensis (C. L. Koch, 1846)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Turkmenistan (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female (with water droplets).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Macaroeris Wunderlich, 1992
There are 8 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Macaroeris albosignata, M. cata, M. desertensis, M. diligens, M. flavicomis, M. litoralis, M. moebi, M. nidicolens.
Macaroeris cata (Blackwall, 1867)
Range: Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira, Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Macaroeris diligens (Blackwall, 1867)
Range: Portugal (Azores)?, Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira, Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Palp.
Macaroeris moebi (Bösenberg, 1895)
Range: Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is, Salvages, Madeira, China (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Macaroeris nidicolens (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Austria, Belgium (introduced), Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Netherlands (introduced), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Marpissa C. L. Koch, 1846
Characters of genus: The members of the genus are fairly large with rather flattened, elongate abdomens. Legs I are stouter than the remainder.
There are 5 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Marpissa longiuscula, M. muscosa, M. nivoyi, M. pomatia, M. radiata.
Marpissa muscosa (Clerck, 1757)
Description: Large species with flattened, elongate abdomen, thickly covered with light hairs. The ground colour is black but is usually mostly hidden by the dense hair coverage, unless the hairs have become rubbed off. The abdomen is usually whitish with a black median and some angulate, chevronlike black lines. Size: Female 8-10 mm; male 6-8 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer, females most of the year. Habitat: On and under bark of trees and fences. Sometimes also on the outside of buildings and walls. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Marpissa nivoyi (Lucas, 1846)
Description: The smallest Danish species. Very distinctive appearance with long and narrow abdomen. Legs I massive and dark. Male is similar to female but darker. Size: Female 4-6 mm; male 4-5 mm. Maturity: All year. Habitat: At the base of marram and other low, mainly coastal vegetation. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Netherlands, Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Marpissa pomatia (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Subadult male.
Male.
Male.
Marpissa radiata (Grube, 1859)
Description: Similar in bodyform to M. muscosa but the abdomen have two rustybrown stripes on a yellowbrown background. Areas where the hairs have been rubbed off are black, as this is the underlying colour. Size: Female 8-10 mm; male 6-7 mm. Maturity: Summer. Habitat: Mainly common reed, where retreats and eggsacs are constructed in the panicles. Here two other salticids are frequently encountered, namely Synageles venator and Sitticus floricola. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female in reed panicle.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Mendoza Peckham & Peckham, 1894
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Mendoza canestrinii.
Mendoza canestrinii (Ninni, 1868)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: North Africa, Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Menemerus Simon, 1868
There are 8 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Menemerus animatus, M. bivittatus, M. dimidius, M. falsificus, M. illigeri, M. schutzae, M. semilimbatus, M. taeniatus.
Menemerus semilimbatus (Hahn, 1829)
Range: Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is to Azerbaijan; Argentina (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Myrmarachne austriaca, M. formicaria, M. formicaria tyrolensis, M. simonis.
Myrmarachne formicaria (De Geer, 1778)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, USA (introduced) (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Neon Simon, 1876
Characters of genus: Small spiders which are fairly easily identified to genus-level due to the relatively large protuberant posterior eyes situated rather far back on the carapace. The epigynes of the females are large compared to the size of the spider.
There are 10 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Neon acoreensis, N. convolutus, N. kovblyuki, N. levis, N. muticus, N. pictus, N. rayi, N. reticulatus, N. robustus, N. valentulus.
Neon reticulatus (Blackwall, 1853)
Description: Carapace of female brown with darker head region, sparsely covered with light hairs. Abdomen brown or greenish-brown with black reticulate markings, however rather chevron like in the midline. There are only few light hairs on the abdomen confined to the anterior half. Legs are finely marked with dark brown and light brown markings and with legs I darker. The male is darker than the female, the head has a metallic lustre, and tibia and metarsi of legs I are blackish. Size: Female 2-3 mm; male 2-2.5 mm. Maturity: Males spring to autumn, females throughout year. Habitat: In low vegetation and leaf litter in both dry and wet conditions. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Pellenes Simon, 1876
There are 19 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Pellenes arciger, P. borisi, P. brevis, P. campylophorus (nomen dubium), P. canosus, P. diagonalis, P. epularis, P. flavipalpis, P. geniculatus, P. geniculatus subsultans, P. laevigatus, P. lagrecai, P. lapponicus, P. maderianus, P. moreanus, P. nigrociliatus, P. seriatus, P. siculus, P. tripunctatus.
Pellenes brevis (Simon, 1868)
Range: France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France, Germany, Rhodes (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Pellenes nigrociliatus (Simon, 1875)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Subadult female (id?).
Male.
Subadult female (id?).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female (id?, only Pellenes species known from La Gomera).
Pellenes tripunctatus (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European)?, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Philaeus Thorell, 1869
There are 6 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Philaeus albovariegatus, P. chrysops, P. jugatus, P. stellatus, P. superciliosus, P. varicus.
Philaeus chrysops (Poda, 1761)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland) (introduced), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands (introduced), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Phlegra Simon, 1876
Characters of genus: The genus is characterized by ocular trapezium nearly twice as broad as long, by tarsi I and II having scopulae and by legs IV shorter than legs III. One species occur in North Europe, including Denmark, with one further species in Central Europe.
There are 12 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Phlegra bicognata, P. bresnieri, P. cinereofasciata, P. fasciata, P. fulvastra, P. lineata, P. loripes, P. profuga, P. rogenhoferi, P. sierrana, P. simoni, P. theseusi.
Phlegra bresnieri (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern Europe to Azerbaijan, Ivory Coast, Tanzania (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Phlegra cinereofasciata (Simon, 1868)
Range: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Phlegra fasciata (Hahn, 1826)
Description: This is the only northern European species with a characteristic striped appearance, and especially the female can not be confused with any other species.Female abdomen blackish with light edges and two light brown bands running back from the posterior eyes. Abdomen light grey with two distinct longitudinal brown bands becoming narrower at posterior end. Legs ringed in yellow-brown and dark-brown, the rings somewhat obscured by light-grey and brown hairs. The male has the same striped abdominal pattern as the female, but is so dark that the stripes are difficult to recognize. Abdomen, legs and palps sparsely covered with small, yellow hairs. Legs and palps uniform dark red-brown to black. Anterior eyes with narrow rings of white hairs. Size: Female 6-7 mm; male 5-6 mm. Maturity: June to september. Habitat: Amongst low vegetation on coastal dunes and foreshores, sometimes also sandy areas away from coasts, such as heathland and inland dunes. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Juvenile.
Male.
Male.
Juvenile.
Genus: Plexippus C. L. Koch, 1846
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Plexippus devorans, P. paykulli.
Plexippus paykulli (Audouin, 1826)
Range: Belgium (introduced), France (Mainland) (introduced), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Malta, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Pseudeuophrys Dahl, 1912
Characters of genus: A small genus with species, recently separated from Euophrys.
There are 7 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Pseudeuophrys callida, P. erratica, P. lanigera, P. nebrodensis, P. obsoleta, P. pallidipes, P. vafra.
Pseudeuophrys erratica (Walckenaer, 1826)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (USA, introduced) (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Pseudeuophrys lanigera (Simon, 1871)
Description: Male carapace black at sides with greyish triangle pointing backwards in center. Triangle is made up of white and brown hairs and ends posteriorly in a patch of dense white hairs. Anterior eyes surrounded by reddish-brown hairs. A transverse bar of whitish hairs are present below the eyes. Palps with distinct white hairs. Legs I are blackish with the exception of the tarsi which are brown. Remaining legs with annulations in light and dark brown colours, at places emphasized by rings of light hairs. Size: Female 4-5 mm; male 3.5-4 mm. Maturity: Males spring and summer, females throughout year. Habitat: Buildings, often high up on walls and roofing tiles. Some individuals stray into rooms and are those that are most frequently encountered. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western, Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Pseudeuophrys obsoleta (Simon, 1868)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Pseudeuophrys vafra (Blackwall, 1867)
Range: Andorra, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Romania, Russia (Central European)?, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores, Madeira, Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Palp and epigyne.
Genus: Pseudicius Simon, 1885
There are 9 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Pseudicius badius, P. courtauldi, P. cultrifer, P. encarpatus, P. espereyi, P. kulczynskii, P. picaceus, P. tamaricis, P. vankeeri.
Pseudicius encarpatus (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Pseudicius picaceus (Simon, 1868)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Genus: Saitis Simon, 1876
There are 6 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Saitis ariadneae, S. barbipes, S. graecus, S. imitatus, S. sengleti, S. tauricus.
Saitis barbipes (Simon, 1868)
Range: Belgium (introduced), Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Portugal (Mainland), Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean, Central Europe (introduced?) (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Saitis graecus Kulczynski, 1905
Range: Bulgaria, Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Salticus Latreille, 1804
There are 39 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Salticus alegranzaensis, S. bicolor (nomen dubium), S. brevis (nomen dubium), S. canariensis, S. cingulatus, S. confusus, S. conicus (nomen dubium), S. conjonctus, S. exilis (nomen dubium), S. flavipalpis (nomen dubium), S. gomerensis, S. guerini (nomen dubium), S. iteacus, S. jenynsi (nomen dubium), S. major, S. mandibularis, S. modicus, S. mutabilis, S. nivosus (nomen dubium), S. noordami, S. notatus (nomen dubium), S. olivaceus, S. propinquus, S. pulvurulentus (nomen dubium), S. quagga, S. ravus, S. scenicus, S. scitulus, S. tricinctus (nomen dubium), S. trilineatus (nomen dubium), S. truncatus, S. unciger, S. unicolor, S. unispinus, S. variegatus (nomen dubium), S. varsaviensis (nomen dubium), S. villosus (nomen dubium), S. wankowiczi (nomen dubium), S. zebraneus.
Salticus canariensis Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Salticus cingulatus (Panzer, 1797)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Salticus gomerensis Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Salticus mutabilis Lucas, 1846
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Romania, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Azores, Georgia, Argentina (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Palp and epigyne.
Male.
Salticus propinquus Lucas, 1846
Range: France (Mainland), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Salticus scenicus (Clerck, 1757) - Zebra jumper
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Salticus zebraneus (C. L. Koch, 1837)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Sibianor Logunov, 2001
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Sibianor aurocinctus, S. larae, S. tantulus.
Sibianor larae Logunov, 2001
Maturity: May to September. Range: Denmark, Finland, Russia (Eastern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Sitticus Simon, 1901
Characters of genus: Plumb spiders, usually in darkbrown or greyish-black colours. They are characterized by having one or two pairs of white spots on the abdomen made of patches of white hairs. In some species, such as S. caricis, spots are indistinct. Legs IV clearly longer than leg III, with tibia IV about twicw as long as tibia III.
There are 29 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Sitticus ammophilus, S. atricapillus, S. caricis, S. damini, S. distinguendus, S. dzieduszyckii, S. exiguus, S. floricola, S. inexpectus, S. inopinabilis, S. limbatus (nomen dubium), S. littoralis (nomen dubium), S. longipes, S. manni, S. penicillatus, S. penicillatus adriaticus, S. pubescens, S. ranieri, S. rivalis, S. rupicola, S. saltator, S. saxicola, S. sexsignatus, S. strandi, S. terebratus, S. truncorum (nomen dubium), S. virgulatus (nomen dubium), S. walckenaeri, S. zimmermanni.
Sitticus caricis (Westring, 1861)
Description: The female appear uniform red-brown or grey-brown from a distance. A close-up image reveal that the body is dark and rateher densely clothed with fine white or orange-brown hairs. The paired spots typical for the members of this genus are indistinct or absent. The male is smaller and darker than the female otherwise similar. Size: Female 3-4.5 mm; male 2.5-3.5 mm. Maturity: Spring to autumn Habitat: In moss and low vegetations i peat bogs, also floating mats and other swampy, usually nutrient-poor places. Range: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Sitticus distinguendus (Simon, 1868)
Description: Both sexes densely clothed with light-grey hairs. Usually, three pairs of rather indistinct white dots are present on the abdomen. The dark ground colour is visible where the hairs have been rubbed off. The male with slightly clearer markings, including a whitish central band on the abdomen. The male palpal tarsi are contrasting black. Size: Female 4-5 mm; male 3-4 mm. Maturity: May to August. Habitat: Sandy places with low and sparse vegetation such as coastal and inland dunes. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Sitticus floricola (C. L. Koch, 1837)
Description: Female with brownish abdomen with two pairs of light patches, of which the posterior pair is much larger than the anterior. The male is darker, almost black, and with more contrasted markings. The carapace with small, but distinct white triangle slightly behind the posterior row of eyes. A white median line extends from the triangle to the rear of the carapace. Additionally white lines extends back from each eye in the second row along the margins of the carapace. Two transverse white lines are present at the anterior eyes, one above the eyes and one below. Anterior medial eyes are ringed with red hairs. The palps also with some red and white hairs. The abdomen is dark with vague white median line, about midway flanked by small white dots, further back flanked by two larger white patches. Legs with clear rings of white hairs. Size: Female 5-6 mm; male 4-5 mm. Maturity: Spring to autumn. Habitat: Wet swampy areas such as peat bogs, wet heathland, and other usually nutrient-poor open wetlands. Eggsacks and retreats are often built in the heads of cotton-grass where both the female and the male may be found together. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male and female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Sitticus inexpectus Logunov & Kronestedt, 1997
Range: Austria, Estonia, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary?, Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland)?, Poland, Slovenia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Sitticus penicillatus (Simon, 1875)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Shell used for retreat, possibly the snail Helicella sp.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Sitticus pubescens (Fabricius, 1775)
Description: Both sexes similar in general appearance but male with smaller abdomen. The ground colour varies from grey-brown to grey-black. The carapaace and abdomen with variable, ill-defined patches of light hairs. Carapace with light triangle in median line slightly in front of posterior eyes. Abdomen with four to six pairs of white spots of varying size. The anterior pairs are usually small. Legs faintly ringed with white hairs. The male palp is without clear markings. The mottled appearance render spiders of this species extremely difficult to spot on rocks. Size: Female 4.5-6 mm; male 4-5 mm. Maturity: All year. Habitat: Warm, sunny places such as walls of buildings, fences, boulders, rock quarries, sometimes also tree trunks. The species often stray indoors. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia, USA (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Subadult male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Sitticus rupicola (C. L. Koch, 1837)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia?, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary?, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine?, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Sitticus saltator (O. P.-Cambridge, 1868)
Description: The smallest species of the genus, but with an impressing ability to jump long distances its small size taken into consideration. This species has longer fourth legs than other Sitticus species, with Tibia IV about three times longer than Tibia III. The female is characterized by red-brown colours and light patches of white hairs. Abdomen with ill-defined white patches and with indistinct chevrons at rear. The male is much smaller and darker than the female. Carapace with light median line behind fovea. The sides and the front are clothed with white hairs, remaining parts of the carapace is dark brown to black. Abdomen has light sides, light median line anteriorly, and a par of large white patches slightly behind midway. Legs are dark, vaguely ringed with white hairs. Size: Female 3-4 mm; male 2-3 mm. Maturity: May to September. Habitat: Warm sandy places with low vegetation, usually close to coasts. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Subadult female.
Sitticus saxicola (C. L. Koch, 1846)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Sitticus terebratus (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Sitticus zimmermanni (Simon, 1877)
Description: Female carapace redbrown to dark brown densely clothed with light hairs and to a lesser degree yellow-orange hairs. Markings ill-defined.The abdomen has a greyish-brown ground colour and is also clothed with light hairs. Sometimes a faint light median band and chevrons are discernible. The prominent large white patches on the male abdomen is absent in the female. Male carapace dark brown with narrow light median and lateral bands. A transverse line of light hairs are present above the anterior eyes and joins with the lateral lines. The abdomen is dark-brown with two large light patches of light hairs. Remaining markings are more variable, but usually there is a light triangle in front of the white patches. Posteriorly there are some small chevrons or transverse lines followed by a light area in front of the spinners. Palpal tibia and patella are mainly white, while the tarsi are contrasting black. Size: Female 4-6 mm; male 3-4 mm. Maturity: May to August. Habitat: In Denmark this species is known from coastal shingle. In Europe this species is also known from dry, sandy areas primarily dunes, and alpine grassland above 2000 m. In light of the very different habitats it can be speculated that S. zimmermanni might cover several species or subspecies. Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece (Mainland)?, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female before egglaying.
Male.
Male.
Female before egglaying.
Genus: Synageles Simon, 1876
Characters of genus: Ant-like spiders with long and narrow body. Abdomen slightly constricted near the middle. Head not abrubtly raised from thorax as in Myrmarachne. First pair of legs massive compared to the remaining pairs.
There are 8 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Synageles albotrimaculatus, S. dalmaticus, S. hilarulus, S. ovatus (nomen dubium), S. pulcher (nomen dubium), S. scutiger, S. subcingulatus, S. venator.
Synageles dalmaticus (Keyserling, 1863)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Romania, Spain (Mainland), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Synageles hilarulus (C. L. Koch, 1846)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Crete), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile ID?.
Juvenile ID?.
Synageles venator (Lucas, 1836)
Description: Carapace black and with iridescence. A transverse white band is present just behind the posterior eyes. The pedicel is clearly visible, especially when viewed from above. The abdomen is brownish anteriorly and blackish posteriorly. At the constriction there is a broken transverse white band. Further back there is another, less distinct transverse band. Legs brownish with longitudinal dark streaks, with legs I exhibiting more pronounced dark markings. Size: Female 3.5-4 mm; male 3 mm. Maturity: Females probably all year, males in summer and autumn. Habitat: In Denmark almost exclusively in coastal dunes. In other European countries also cultivated land, fens and reedbeds where retreats can be found in panicles high up from the ground. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Genus: Talavera Peckham & Peckham, 1909
Characters of genus: In contrast to the closely related Euophrys genus the combined lenght of patella and tibia does not differ much for legs III and IV.
There are 13 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Talavera aequipes, T. aequipes ludio, T. aperta, T. esyunini, T. inopinata, T. krocha, T. milleri, T. monticola, T. parvistyla, T. petrensis, T. poecilopus (nomen dubium), T. thorelli, T. westringi (nomen dubium).
Talavera aequipes (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Description: A small brown spider with contrasting yellow palps. The body appears uniform brown at a distance, but in reality the colour is composed of the underlying dark brown ground colour lightened by a light coverage of orange-red and whitish hairs. Abdomen with dark chevrons due to patches lacking light hairs. Legs pale yellow with darker annulations. Male is similar to female, but has legs I almost black with greenish-blue iredescent hairs. The face is covered with distinct golden-yellow hairs. Size: Female 2-3 mm; male 2-2.5 mm. Maturity: Males in spring, females extending into summer. Habitat: Warm dry and wet heathland, dunes and grassland on sandy soil, sometimes with high densities at places with stones, underneath which retreats and eggsacks are made. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Talavera aperta (Miller, 1971)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Poland, Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Belgium to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Talavera petrensis (C. L. Koch, 1837)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Thyene Simon, 1885
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Thyene imperialis, T. phragmitigrada.
Thyene imperialis (Rossi, 1846)
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Old World (Platnick 10.0).
Male abdominal markings.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Yllenus Simon, 1868
There are 16 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Yllenus albifrons, Y. albocinctus, Y. algarvensis, Y. arenarius, Y. brueggeri (nomen dubium), Y. caspicus, Y. flavociliatus, Y. gavdos, Y. horvathi, Y. lyachovi, Y. mongolicus, Y. salsicola, Y. skalanicus, Y. squamifer, Y. univittatus, Y. vittatus.
Yllenus univittatus (Simon, 1871)
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Russia (Southern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, possibly Turkmenistan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.