- filtered for
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Philodromidae (Running Crab Spiders)
Biology: The Philodromidae is a medium sized spider family comprising a world fauna of about 522 species in 29 genera. They range in size from small to large (2-16 mm body size). Philodromids have agile flattened bodies and laterigrade legs, which in most genera are of about the same lengths and thickness. They move rapidly around as their claw tufts and scopulae provide good adhesion to slippery surfaces. Species of Philodromus are able to move from one side of a leaf to the other or halfway round a stem so quickly that human eyes hardly manage to follow the motion. Once they stop running they instantly adopt a motionless, camouflaged posture with the legs stretched to closely follow the contour of the substrate. The laterigrade legs allow them to slip in to bark crevices etc. without raising the leg joints almost as they are 2-dimensional creatures. Many species are cryptic coloured and blend in with the substrate being very difficult to spot. Most species inhabit the foliage, branches, and stems of bushes and trees but many are also found running about at ground level, e.g. species of Thanatus. Species of Tibellus are elongated and adapted to a life on grass stems. Many species of Philodromus are capable of changing the depth of colour to conform to different backgrounds. Philodromus margaritatus occurs in two colour forms one of which is mottled in grey and brown perfectly camouflaged on bark. The second colour form Philodromus margaritatus forma laevipes is lighter with dark blotches and perfectly camouflaged on lichen covered stems. Most species in the northern temperate regions hibernate as subadults becoming adult in spring. The female constructs a woolly egg sack across a leaf, under bark etc. and some species stands guard directly over it while other species sit nearby.
Characters of family: The philodromids belong to the group of araneomorph, ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 2 tarsal claws. The eyes are not situated on tubercles. In many species they are fairly equal in size, however in some species all eyes of the anterior row or just the anterior medials are larger. The eyes are arranged in two recurved rows of four with the posterior row sometimes more strongly recurved than the anterior row. All legs are of about the same lengths or legs II alone longer (twice as long in Ebo). The legs are laterigrade so that the morphologically dorsal surface is rotated about one quarter of a turn to a posterior position. Tarsi I and II are provided with scopulae and claw tufts composed of spatulate hairs (thickest point on the distal half). The anterior tibia are sometimes provided with a row of long spines. Other diagnostics characters which separate philodromids from the related thomisids and sparassids include the lack of a colulus and the absence of tapetum in the secondary eyes. The carapace is as long as wide or elongate, rather flattened usually with fovea absent. It is densely clothed in recumbent plumiform or spatulate hairs. The carapace is frequently marked by a lighter longitudinal band of about the same width as the eye rows. The sternum is oval corresponding with carapace form, apex blunt between coxa IV. The cheliceral fang furrow usually has no teeth. The labium is longer than wide. Endites are longer than labium and converge in front. The female palp has a small toothed claw. The shape of the abdomen is oval, in some species slightly longer than wide, in others quite elongate. In most species the widest point of the abdomen is found in the rear half. It is densely covered with recumbent hairs and sparsely covered with longer, erect hairs. The cardiac mark is darker than the surrounding abdomen, sometimes very distinctive as in e.g. Thanatus. It may be followed by a series of chevrons. The spinners are simple. The tracheal spiracle is situated close to the spinners. The epigyne is usually small having a median septum. The male palp is furnished with a tibial apophysis; the shape of which is important when identifying to species level using the stereomicroscope.
Genus: Ebo Keyserling, 1884
Ebo patellaris Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is, Cape Verde Is (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Philodromus Walckenaer, 1826
Characters of genus: The spiders of this genus have flattened bodies, and latigrade legs that often are held very close to the substrate such as all segments appear as being in the same plane. Most species have relatively short abdomens, only slightly longer than broad and with the widest point behind midway. In this respect they resemble many species of the Thomisidae. The posterior row of eyes is recurved and the distance between the medial eyes is about 1.5 times the distance between a median and a lateral eye. Most species live on plants on which they are able to move around rapidly, their flat bodies enable them to hide under bark. Some species are extremely well camouflaged and almost impossible to spot unless they move. Other species are qiute conspiceous even when motionless.
Philodromus albidus Kulczynski, 1911
Description: A very pale species very similar to the somewhat larger P. rufus. The latter species is frequently is finely spottet with pink giving an overall reddish or pinkish appearance. However, the colour is not a reliable field characteristic to separate the species. Definite species identification is only possibly by examinating the genitialia under the microscope. Philodromus albidus is similar in general appearance to the female of P. dispar, but is much paler due to a dense clothing of light hairs that whitens the underlying brown and yellow markings. The carapace has wide brown lateral bands with thin white edges. The abdomen is yellowish with brownish cardiac mark, and some brownish spots of varying size. The legs are uniformly pale greenish yellow. Male similar to female but smaller. Size: Female 3.5-5 mm; male 3-3.5 mm. Maturity: Summer. Habitat: Bushes and lower branches of trees of forest edges, open forests and solitary trees in grassland. Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary?, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western, Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Philodromus albopictus Simon, 1875 (Nomen dubium)
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus aryy Marusik, 1991
Range: Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus aureolus (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Five-legged old female.
Old female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Philodromus beskida (Fickert, 1876) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus bistigma Simon, 1870
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus blanckei (Wunderlich, 1995)
Range: Italy (Sardinia) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sardinia (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus blandus L. Koch, 1879 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus buchari Kubcov, 2004
Range: Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus buxi Simon, 1884
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Luxemburg, Netherlands, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European)?, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus cammarus Rossi, 1846
Range: Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Balkans (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus catagraphus Simon, 1870
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer, 1802)
Description: The markings and size of the female is very similar to the female of P. aureolus. However, the abdominal markings is often with more contrast, especially the cardiac mark has more clear boundaries. Male very similar to males of P. aureolus and P. collinus, however frequently with less metallic lustre. Reliable species identification require examination of genitialia under the microscope and comparison with drawings in the literature. Size: Female 5-6 mm; male 4 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: Bushes and trees, sometimes also on herbage. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Philodromus collinus C. L. Koch, 1835
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Philodromus corticinus (C. L. Koch, 1837)
Range: Andorra, Austria, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus depriesteri Braun, 1965
Range: Austria, Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria, Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus dilutus Thorell, 1875
Range: Russia (Central European)? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus dispar Walckenaer, 1826
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (USA, Canada, introduced) (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Philodromus dispar obscurus Lebert, 1877
Range: Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus elegans Franganillo, 1926 (Nomen dubium)
Range: Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus emarginatus (Schrank, 1803)
Description: This species is reddish brown with dense coverage of whitish hairs making the overall colour appearing uniform pinkish-brown. Legs are faintly annulated. The male is slightly darker than the female. Size: Female 4-6 mm; male 4-5 mm. Maturity: Summer. Habitat: Lower branches and stems of conifers. The species can be quite conspicious on stems, and will often dash off to the back side when approached. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Philodromus emarginatus lusitanicus Kulczynski, 1911
Range: Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus fallax Sundevall, 1833
Range: Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Subadult female.
Subadult female, abdominal markings.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Philodromus fuscolimbatus Lucas, 1846
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Yugoslavia? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe to Morocco, Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Philodromus fuscomarginatus (De Geer, 1778)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Philodromus generalii Canestrini, 1868
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus glaucinus Simon, 1870
Range: Bulgaria, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Southern European), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus hadzii Silhavy, 1944
Range: Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Macedonia (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus hierroensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus histrio (Latreille, 1819)
Description: The distinct colouration of this handsome species makes it impossible to confuse it with any other member of the genus. The carapace has dark lateral bands with white edges and a dark centerline in the posterior half. Abdomen with a dark cardiac mark surrounded with contrastingly white lines. In each side there are two oblique white lines on a reddish brown background. The legs are reddish-brown with whitish-yellow annulations. The male is slimmer, slightly smaller and darker than the female. Size: Female 6-7 mm; male 5-6 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: Warm heathland and forest edges, primarily on heather. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female abdominal markings.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Philodromus insulanus Kulczynski, 1905
Range: Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus lepidus Blackwall, 1870
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Romania, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to India (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus lividus Simon, 1875
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal, France, Morocco, Algeria, Italy, Croatia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female (five-legged).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Philodromus longipalpis Simon, 1870
Range: Belgium?, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary?, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Netherlands, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Iran (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Philodromus lunatus Muster & Thaler, 2004
Range: Croatia, France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Croatia, Greece, Turkey (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus margaritatus (Clerck, 1757)
Description: This species has a broad, flattened body. The markings on the abdomen is variable, nevertheless two distinct colourforms can be separated. One grey colourform is characterised by greyish colurs mottled with brownish spots of varying size, while a second form has greenish-white abdomen contrasted with large dark blotches (forma laevipes). The latter form is extremely well-camouflaged on lichen-covered stems. Legs have clear annulations of dark and light colours. Size: Female 5-6 mm; male 4-5 mm. Maturity: Summer. Habitat: Open, warm pineforests where the species can be brushed from stems or swept from branches. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Female.
Juvenile.
Subadult male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Philodromus marmoratus Kulczynski, 1891
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria, Czech Rep, Bulgaria, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus medius O. P.-Cambridge, 1872
Range: Cyprus, Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece, Cyprus, Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Philodromus micans Menge, 1875
Range: Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus mistus Blackwall, 1837 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus pardalis Muster & Bosmans, 2007
Range: Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal, Spain, Algeria to Egypt (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus parietalis Simon, 1875
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus pelagonus Silhavy, 1944
Range: Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Macedonia (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus poecilus (Thorell, 1872)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus praedatus O. P.-Cambridge, 1871
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female (uncertain species id).
Female (uncertain species id).
Female (uncertain species id).
Female (uncertain species id).
Female (uncertain species id).
Female (uncertain species id).
Female (uncertain species id).
Female (uncertain species id).
Female (uncertain species id).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Philodromus pulchellus Lucas, 1846
Range: Austria, Croatia, Cyprus?, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Great Britain (Channel Islands), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Philodromus punctiger O. P.-Cambridge, 1908
Range: Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male, note that legs II are relatively long in this species.
Male.
Male, spinners.
Male, note that femur II is much longer than femur I.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Philodromus rubidus Simon, 1870 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus ruficapillus Simon, 1885
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus rufus Walckenaer, 1826
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus simillimus Denis, 1962
Range: Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus simoni Mello-Leito, 1929
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus vagulus Simon, 1875
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus vegetus L. Koch, 1881 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Balearic Is. (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus vivax Blackwall, 1852 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Philodromus wunderlichi Muster & Thaler, 2007
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female, atypical "Paratibellus"-like habitus.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, venter.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Genus: Thanatus C. L. Koch, 1837
Characters of genus: The members of this genus have oval, sligthly elongate abdomens with a clear cardiac mark. The abdomen is the least flattened among the crab and running crab spiders and the legs are the least laterigrade. Therefore they bear some resemblance to the wolf spiders (Lycosidae), but they eyes are quite different. Species of Thanatus differ from species of Philodromus by having legs IV the longest and the strongly recurved posterior row of eyes. The anterior row is short. Eyes of the posterior row are almost uniformly spaced. The carapace and abdomen is without a dark longitudinal band.
Thanatus albicans Franganillo, 1918 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus arcticus Thorell, 1872
Size: Female 6-7 mm; male 5-6 mm. Range: Norway (Mainland), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Thanatus arenarius L. Koch, 1872
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Thanatus arenicola (Schmidt, 1976)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Thanatus aridorum Silhavy, 1940
Range: Czech Republic (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Czech Rep (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus atratus Simon, 1875
Range: Andorra, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Thanatus bungei (Kulczynski, 1908)
Range: Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, North America (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus coloradensis Keyserling, 1880
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (introduced), Liechtenstein, Romania, Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Thanatus dissimilis Denis, 1960
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus fabricii (Audouin, 1826)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Thanatus firmetorum Muster & Thaler, 2003
Range: Austria, Germany, Italy (Mainland)? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Austria, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus flavidus Simon, 1875
Range: Bulgaria, Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Russia (Southern European), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece, Russia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus formicinus (Clerck, 1757)
Description: Carapace with wide brownish longitudinal band in the centre, densely clothed with light hairs, overall giving an greyish appearance. On each side indistinct darker bands are followed by lighter lateral bands along the edges of the carapace. The legs and the abdomen are yellowish to reddish-brown, also clothed with light hairs which totals to grey in the same way as the light areas of the carapace. The cardiac mark on the abdomen is very distinct. Further back two lateral dentate lines converge towards the spinnerets. The male is similar to the female, but smaller. Size: Female 8-12 mm; male 6-7 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: Wet and dry heathland. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Thanatus fulvus Franganillo, 1917
Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus fuscipes Denis, 1937
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus fuscipes concolor Denis, 1957
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus gigas (C. L. Koch, 1837)
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus imbecillus L. Koch, 1878
Range: Bulgaria, Russia (Eastern European), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus kitabensis Charitonov, 1946
Range: Russia (Southern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus lanceolatus Simon, 1875
Range: Ukraine? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus lineatipes Simon, 1870
Range: Bulgaria, France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Macedonia, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean, Georgia (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus meronensis Levy, 1977
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus mikhailovi Logunov, 1996
Range: Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus oblongiusculus (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Bulgaria, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Macedonia, Portugal (Madeira), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palaearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus oblongiusculus atomarius (Simon, 1932)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus pictus L. Koch, 1881
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus pygmaeus Schmidt & Krause, 1996
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus rayi Simon, 1875
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Thanatus sabulosus (Menge, 1875)
Description: Bears some resemblance to T. striatus in respect to abdomnal markings and body size. However, the markings are more distinct, and the cardiac mark is much wider relatively to its length. Thanatus sabulosus is also characterized by having a rather short abdomen making the spider appear plumber than T. striatus. The two species also differ in leg markings, which are contrasted with light and dark colours in T. sabulosus but uniformly coloured in T. striatus. The male is smaller and darker than the female. Size: Female 4-5.5 mm; male 3-4 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: Dry, warm places such as sandy forest edges and heather. Range: Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Juvenile.
Thanatus striatus C. L. Koch, 1845
Description: One of the smallest Thanatus species in Europe. The carapace with one median and two lateral dark bands somewhat obscured by light hairs. Abdomen light brown with elongate cardiac mark. At each side there are dark sinuous lines converging towards the spinners. With many erect dark bristles. Legs are yellowish-brown, with fine dark spots, whitish-yellow plumose hairs and many dark spines. From a distance the legs appear uniformly coloured. The male is darker and smaller than the female, and with less clear markings. Size: Female 4-5 mm; male 3-4 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: Grassland, especially dunes and other dry sandy areas, sometimes also heathland and fens. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile.
Juveniles.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Thanatus vulgaris Simon, 1870
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium (introduced), Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany (introduced), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Poland, Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Thanatus vulgaris creticus Kulczynski, 1903
Range: Bulgaria, Greece (Crete) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Tibellus Simon, 1875 - Slender crab spiders
Characters of genus: Distinctive spiders with elongate, slender bodies and long legs. They inhabit grasses, sedges and other herbs. They are not easy to detect when they rest on a dried grass stem because their striped, straw coloured body is held close to the stem, and the legs are stretched out to the front and back. It is not possible to separate the species alone by the general appearance. As the species also overlap somewhat in habitat examination of the genitialia under a microscope is sometimes necessary for reliable identification. It should be noted that they resemble species of Tetragnathidae, which also have the habit of stretching themselves along stems and twigs. However, these spiders have much larger chelicerae and different eyes.
Tibellus argentatus (Walckenaer, 1802) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Tibellus macellus Simon, 1875
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Tibellus maritimus (Menge, 1875)
Description: Often similar to T. oblongus in general appearance. The ground colour is yellow-brown. A darker longitudinal midline stretches along the entire length of the body. Dark bands also stretches along the the sides of the abdomen. A longitudinal row of dark spots are present in each side of the midline. In T. oblongus there are usually only one or two pairs of spots. The male is darker than the female, and exhibit more contrasting markings. Size: Female 8-10 mm; male 7-8 mm. Maturity: Summer. Habitat: On marram grasses and other coarse grasses along coast, more rarely also at inland sites such as sandhills with coarse grasses. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile.
Tibellus oblongus (Walckenaer, 1802)
Description: Similar in general appearance to T. maritimus, but typically only one or two pairs of spots flank the midline band at the posterior end. Some specimens may posses more spots and thus become indistinguishable from T. maritimus. In this case only examination of the genitialia will provide the correct identity of the species. The male is smaller and darker than the female, and rather similar to the male of T. maritimus. Size: Female 8-10 mm; male 7-8 mm. Maturity: Summer. Habitat: Tall grasses and other herbs in mostly moist conditions. This species is primarily found at inland sites in contrast to T. maritimus. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Tibellus oblongus maculatus Caporiacco, 1950
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Tibellus parallelus (C. L. Koch, 1837)
Range: Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Spain (Mainland), Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Tibellus utotchkini Ponomarev, 2008
Range: Russia (Southern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Tibellus vossioni Simon, 1884
Range: Greece (Cyclades) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Africa (Platnick 10.0).