- only species with images listed
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Miturgidae (Prowling Spiders)
Biology: This is a small family with only two European genera.
Taxonomic note: The family was fairly recently separated from the Clubionidae now is left with just one genus in the region, Clubiona. Species of the largest European genus among the Miturgidae, Cheiracanthium are distinguished from the closely related species of Clubiona by lacking a conspicuous dorsal groove in the midline of the carapace, the lack of a cluster of long curved erect setae at the anterior end of the abdomen, by having the first pair of legs the longest, and by having a long, pointed spur extending back from the cymbium over the tibia. Species of Cheiracanthium are also chracterised by having relatively thinner legs and more robust bodies than Clubiona.
This family is represented in Europe with 33 species in 2 genera (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009). European genera (number of species in parenthesis): Cheiracanthium (32), Prochora (1).
Genus: Cheiracanthium C. L. Koch, 1839 - Longlegged sac spiders
Characters of genus: The males of the genus resemble females but are slimmer and have longer chelicerae. The body colours are various hues of yellow, orange, brown and green. They are swift nocturnal hunters on foliage and surefooted due to dense claw tufts composed of many flattened setae.
There are 32 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Cheiracanthium abbreviatum, C. albidulum, C. angulitarse, C. annulipes, C. campestre, C. canariense, C. cretense, C. cuniculum, C. effossum, C. elegans, C. erraticum, C. floresense, C. fulvotestaceum, C. gratum, C. ienisteai, C. incognitum, C. jorgeense, C. macedonicum, C. margaritae, C. mildei, C. montanum, C. occidentale, C. oncognathum, C. pelasgicum, C. pennatum, C. pennyi, C. punctorium, C. rupestre, C. salsicola, C. seidlitzii, C. striolatum, C. virescens.
Cheiracanthium albidulum (Blackwall, 1859)
Range: Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, abdomen with spinelike hairs.
Female.
Female.
Cheiracanthium annulipes O. P.-Cambridge, 1872
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, Egypt, Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Female (id?), cataleptic.
Male (id?).
Male (id?).
Female (id?).
Female, abdominal markings (id?).
Female (id?).
Female (id?).
Male (id?).
Female (id?).
Female (id?).
Female (id?).
Cheiracanthium campestre Lohmander, 1944
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Cheiracanthium canariense Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is, Egypt (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male palp.
Male.
Male, abdominal markings.
Male.
Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walckenaer, 1802)
Description: Light brown cephalothorax, sparsesly covered by thin light hairs. The abdomen has greyish sides and a wide ligth yellow median band enclosing a purple red median stripe. Legs are light brown. Males are smaller and slimmer than females, and with a clearer colouration. Retreats are built in the top of vegetation such as grasses and heather. The spider spend the daytime in the retreat which is also used for oviposition. Size: Female 7-8 mm; male 5-6 mm. Maturity: Males spring and early summer, females spring and summer. Habitat: Warm, mostly dry places with tall grasses and weeds or dwarf shrubs such as grass- and heathland. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
This male was found in the female’s silken cell built in the top of a heather bush..
Cheiracanthium floresense Wunderlich, 2008
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Cheiracanthium jorgeense Wunderlich, 2008
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Cheiracanthium mildei L. Koch, 1864
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic, Argentina (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Cheiracanthium oncognathum Thorell, 1871
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Macedonia, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Cheiracanthium pelasgicum (C. L. Koch, 1837)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Moldova, Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Cheiracanthium pennyi O. P.-Cambridge, 1873
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Cheiracanthium punctorium (Villers, 1789)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Subadult male.
Male.
Cheiracanthium striolatum Simon, 1878
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Cheiracanthium virescens (Sundevall, 1833)
Description: Ligth brown carapace and legs, sligtly greenish. Abdomen light greenish-brown without markings except for faint cardiac mark. The eggsacks are found under stones. The species is very similar to C. campestre in general appearance and microscopic examination of the genitialia is needed to separate the species. Cheiracanthium campestre is a very rare species in Denmark, but in some instances specimens may have been misidentified as C. virescens. Size: Female 5-9 mm; male 5-7 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: On vegetation or under stones in dry, sandy places such as dunes and coastal grassland. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.