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Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Linyphiidae (Line Weaving Spiders)
Biology: The Linyphiidae is the worlds second largest spider family encompassing ca. 4320 species in more than 570 genera. The highest diversity is found in the northern temperate regions. In these regions as well as in the arctic regions spiders of this family dominates the spider fauna. The jumping spiders (Salticidae) is an even larger family but they generally require warmer conditions than the linyphiids and for this reason they are less well represented in the cooler regions. Linyphiids are found worldwide in all terrestrial biotopes and is perhaps the most widely distributed spider family. They range in size from very small to medium (1-8.5 mm body size). Most species are found at ground level but they occupy a very wide array of habitats. The members of the family build a sheet web sometimes dome shaped. The web has no retreat and the spider always hang inverted below the sheet. Larger species in particular sometimes add irregular vertical snares acting both as sheet suspension strands and barrage balloon wires impeding the flight of insects. When insects strike the vertical snares they fall down on the sheet and the spider rush to bite the prey through the sheet web. Many species disperse by air and the phenomenon of ballooning is very noticeable in this family when very dense populations try to balloon at the same time. The spiders climb up high in the vegetation and point the spinners toward the sky. In this position they let out some strands of silk and eventually the wind will lift the spiders up in the air. Often they only manage to fly a short distance but they will keep trying sometimes resulting in a layer of shimmering silk covering the vegetation. Ballooning takes place usually in late summer. Ballooning may result in spiders literally raining from the sky. Erigone atra is a very common aeronaut in late summer in some areas and on several occasions I have experienced specimens landing in my hair at short intervals, for example while I was sitting in my garden.
Characters of family: The linyphiids belong to the group of ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. The eyes are arranged in 2 rows of 4, usually heterogeneous in size with the anterior medials smaller than the rest. Frequently, the eyes are ringed with black, this being most noticeable in species with lighter coloured carapaces such as many species of the Linyphiinae subfamily. Some species adapted to dark habitats have the eyes much reduced, sometimes being very minute in size or only evidenced by pale markings under the integument (e.g. Porrhomma rosenhauri). The carapace is highly variable especially in the smaller species belonging to the Erigoninae subfamily. Males of this large subfamily frequently have the frontal region modified into strangely formed lobes or bear other types of protuberances some of which may have tufts of hairs. Some species have the carapace punctured with pits (see images of Lophomma punctatum). The males may also have sulci (grooves) running backwards from the posterior eyes. The chelicerae do not possess a lateral condyle (boss at base of chelicer). The outer side of the chelicerae have horizontal stridulating ridges visible in many species. Such ridges only occur scattered in other spider families (see for example images of ridges in Metellina stridulans of the Tetragnathidae). The labium is strongly rebordered as in the Nesticidae, Araneidae, and Tetragnathidae. The endites are usually parallel. Legs are slender and provided with spines. The number of spines on the legs is an important character for species identification when this is undertaken using the stereomicroscope. The abdomen is nearly always longer than wide sometimes with a pattern (Linyphiinae in particular) and sometimes mainly uniformly coloured, very often blackish (Erigoninae in particular). Some species posses an abdominal scutum as for example some members of the Ceratinella genus. The epigynes are variable, sometimes simple as in the Erigoninae or provided with a scapus as often seen in the Linyphiinae. The male palp often possesses an U-shaped paracymbium. The family was earlier divided in to two subfamilies, which sometimes were elevated to family status: the Linyphiidae and Erigonidae (also known as Micryphantidae). The Linyphiidae was characterized by not having tibial apophyses on the male palp, by having a claw on the female palp in most species, and by having two dorsal spines on tibia IV or if only one spine present there was one short spine on metatarsi I and II. The Erigonidae was characterized by having at least one tibial apophyses on the male palp, by lacking a claw on the female palp, and by having just a single dorsal spine on tibia IV and with the metatarsi spineless, or all spines lacking altogether. However, the family is now divided in to seven subfamilies, the Dubiaraneinae, Erigoninae, Ipainae, Linyphiinae, Micronetinae, Mynogleninae, and Stemonyphantinae. Consult recent literature or Wikipedia for lists of subfamily genera. See also Linyphiid Spiders Of The World by Andrei Tanasevitch and LinyGen: Linyphioid Genera of the World (Pimoidae and Linyphiidae) by Gustavo Hormiga, Dimitar Dimitrov, Jeremy A. Miller and Fernando Alvarez-Padilla.
Genus: Acartauchenius Simon, 1884
Acartauchenius scurrilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Eggsack visible behind curtain of silk. It contained only four eggs which were relatively large compared to the spider.
Eggsack placed in cavity on underside of stone.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Habitat.
Genus: Anguliphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 1996
Anguliphantes angulipalpis (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Antrohyphantes Dumitrescu, 1971
Antrohyphantes balcanicus (Drensky, 1931)
Range: Bulgaria, Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Araeoncus Simon, 1884
Araeoncus humilis (Blackwall, 1841)
male 1.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, New Zealand (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
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Female.
Genus: Bolyphantes C. L. Koch, 1837
Characters of genus: Fairly large linyphiidsof the subfamily Micronetinae having body lengths up to 5 mm (Saaristo & Tanasesevitch 2000). In some species the male carapace is elevated in the ocular area which is furnished with numerous forward directed bristles. Carapace only somewhat raised in female. Abdomen with pattern. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. Legs long and slender and well armed with spines. Femora without dorsal spines. Tibiae and metatarsi with numerous spines. Tm I 0.15-0.18 (Saaristo & Tanasesevitch 2000). Abdomen with pattern. Males have a stout spine on the palpal patella.
Bolyphantes alticeps (Sundevall, 1833)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Bolyphantes luteolus (Blackwall, 1833)
Description: The carapace is brown sometimes with a more or less distinct dark median stripe. In some specimens dark lateral bands are present as well. The female clypeus is distinctly concave. Eyes are ringed with black. The male has the projecting eyeregion being rounded. The male palpal patellar spine is stout with the apical end jagged like a broken stick. Legs are brown with no markings. The abdomen of both sexes are light yellow brown with many small white patches. There is a dark median stripe and some dark blotches at the sides. Size: Female 3.5-4 mm; male 3-3.5 mm. Habitat: Fairly common in moist conditions on bushes and among low vegetation on heaths and in coastal dunes, sometimes also in forests. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
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Female.
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Female.
Female, venter.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Centromerita Dahl, 1912
Characters of genus: All tibiae with two dorsal spines, lateral spines and some stout spines ventrally (Locket & Millidge 1953). Metatarsus without a trichobothrium. Femora I and II each with a dorsal and prolateral spine. The male palpal tibia has a bunch of stout serrated bristles.
Centromerita bicolor (Blackwall, 1833)
Description: Carapace and legs unicoloured brown to dark brown. Posterior median eyes one diameter or more apart. Male head with a number of forward directed spines, fewer in females. Abdomen brown to dark brown. If brown then the abdomen has the same colour as the carapace and legs. If dark brown then the abdomen is darker than the carapace and legs. Size: 3.0-3.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Centromerus Dahl, 1886
Characters of genus: Legs fairly short and stout (Locket & Millidge 1953). Metatarsi I and II with a small dorsal spine. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. Tibia I sometimes with a prolateral spine. Tibia IV with one or two dorsal spines. Epigyne with a scape in most species.
Centromerus acutidentatus Deltshev, 2002
Range: Bulgaria, Macedonia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Yugoslavia (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus brevivulvatus Dahl, 1912
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus cavernarum (L. Koch, 1872)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus dilutus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Description: A fairly small member of the genus. Carapace yellow brown to brown sometimes with darker striae. Abdomen grey to blackish. Legs yellow to yellow brown often paler than carapace. Leg spines rather short and fine (Locket & Millidge 1953). Tibia IV with one dorsal spine only. The epigynal scape is about 10 times longer than wide and require good light to be viewable using a lens. Size: Female 1.2-1.6 mm; male 1.2-1.5 mm. Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands?, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Latvia, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Centromerus lakatnikensis (Drensky, 1931)
Range: Bulgaria, Macedonia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus pabulator (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus sellarius (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Croatia, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Latvia?, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus semiater (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus silvicola (Kulczynski, 1887)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary?, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe to Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus sylvaticus (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Ceratinella Emerton, 1882
Characters of genus: Compact dark spiders with coriaceous abdomens (Locket & Millidge 1953). The male carapace is slightly domed in head region. The legs are short and robust with metatarsi equal or slightly longer than tarsi. Tibial spines very short and resemble hairs. The abdomen is globular in females, less so in males. A dorsal scutum is present in many species.
Ceratinella brevis (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia?, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Cresmatoneta Simon, 1929
Cresmatoneta mutinensis (Canestrini, 1868)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Romania, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Dicymbium Menge, 1868
Dicymbium nigrum (Blackwall, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Diplocephalus Bertkau, 1883
Characters of genus: Male head elevated in to a variety of lobes (Locket & Millidge 1953). Tibiae I-II with two spines, III-IV with just one spine (spines sometimes reduced or absent in males). Metatarsi longer than tarsi: leg I: 1.2-1.3 times, leg IV: 1.5-1.6 times (Locket & Millidge 1953).
Diplocephalus connatus Bertkau, 1889
Range: Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus foraminifer (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Bulgaria, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Spain (Mainland), Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus latifrons (O. P.-Cambridge, 1863)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Diplostyla Emerton, 1882
Diplostyla concolor (Wider, 1834)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Madeira), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Dismodicus Simon, 1884
Dismodicus elevatus (C. L. Koch, 1838)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
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Female.
Genus: Erigone Audouin, 1826
Characters of genus: Edges of carapace strongly dentate in males, less so in females. Male head domed, but not raised in to a lobe. The chelicers are robust and furnished with warts and teeth anteriorly being more strongly developed in males than in females. Tibiae I-III with two spines, IV with just one. Metatarsi slightly longer than tarsi: leg I: 1.3-1.4 times, leg IV: ca.1.6 times (Locket & Millidge 1953). Male palp with characteristic large ventral patellar apophysis at the distal end. Palpal femur often with ventral knobs and teeth along length.
Erigone dentipalpis (Wider, 1834)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone remota L. Koch, 1869
Range: Andorra, Austria, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Romania, Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya), Slovenia?, Switzerland, Ukraine? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Floronia Simon, 1887
Floronia bucculenta (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Frontinellina van Helsdingen, 1969
Frontinellina frutetorum (C. L. Koch, 1834)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
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Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Gonatium Menge, 1868
Biology: This genus has been reviewed by Millidge (1981). It is possible to recognise the members by the following combination of somatic characters: leg spination, presence of a tricobothrium on metatarsus IV, value of Tm I, and by the way the tarsal claws are pectinated (see description below). The genus is, however, also defined by the structure of the genitals which share characters thought to be derived (see Millidge (1981) for details).
Characters of genus: The species range in size from 2.0-3.7 mm. The cephalothorax and legs are bright orange, orange red or reddish brown. The male head carries no lobe but is slightly raised. Sternum at least as wide as long with coxae IV widely separated. Legs fairly long and slender. Leg spines are short, shorter and weaker in males than in females. Males have tibia I and to a lesser degree tibia II curved and swollen distally. They are furnished ventrally with many long hairs or bristles. Also metatarsi I and II and femora I and II are provided with many short spines or bristles ventrally. There is a single spine on each tibia in both sexes. All metatarsi with a trichobothrium. Tm I range from 0.75-0.95 (Millidge 1981). The tarsal claws are pectinated, consisting of narrow, needle-like teeth. The pectination is different in almost all other groups of spiders with pectinate claws (Millidge 1981). Abdomen globular, often reddish with four sigilla dorsally. There is no scutum. The male palpal femur is swollen in some species. The epigynes of all Gonatium species have the same general appearance, and depending on the number of species at a given locality specimens may be identifiable with a lens.
Gonatium hilare (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Gonatium orientale Fage, 1931
Range: Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania, Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Gonatium paradoxum (L. Koch, 1869)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Gonatium rubellum (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Gonatium strugaense Drensky, 1929
Range: Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Macedonia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Gongylidium Menge, 1868
Gongylidium rufipes (Linnaeus, 1758)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
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Female.
Female.
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Female.
Genus: Hypomma Dahl, 1886
Characters of genus: The commonest species (including the Faroese species) are characterized by orange prosoma, legs and black, glossy abdomens with four distinct sigilla. Male head elevated into two large lobes divided longitudinally. Eyes are situated in front of lobes. Tibia I-IV with one short dorsal spines less than diameter of tibia in length. Male palp with two tibial apophyses, one short and small, one long and slender.
Hypomma brevitibiale (Wunderlich, 1980)
Range: Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Macedonia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Incestophantes Tanasevitch, 1992
Incestophantes crucifer (Menge, 1866)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Incestophantes frigidus (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland)?, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Slovenia?, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Ipa Saaristo, 2007
Ipa keyserlingi (Ausserer, 1867)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male, note the characteristic forked lamella of the palp.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Ipa terrenus (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Lepthyphantes Menge, 1866
Biology: Due to the high number of species in this genus (formerly almost 400) many former Lepthyphantes species have been grouped in to new genera mainly based on small details in the copulatory organs. Saaristo & Tanasevitch (1996) limit the genus to only five species of which only two are European, but this is apparently not followed by Platnick.
Characters of genus: Medium to large linyphiids ranging form 2.5 to 4.5 mm body length (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1996). Legs clearly annulated in European species. Tm IV without trichobothrium. Abdomen with a distinct pattern, usually composed of broad black transverse markings formed as bars, bands or chevrons on a grey background. Abdomens may be dotted with some whitish spots. Males are characterized by the sickle-shaped embolus with tight sulcus and large carina (not visible with a hand lens). Epigynes wit large scape arising from the inside of the epigynal cavity. Note that there is some disagreements on the delineation of the genus. The genus description here is based on a narrow conception as given by Saaristo & Tanasevitch (1996).
Lepthyphantes centromeroides Kulczynski, 1914
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Balkans, Bulgaria, Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes leprosus (Ohlert, 1865) - House line-weaver
Description: Carapace yellow-brown to brown with darker striae (Locket & Millidge 1953). Legs similarly coloured but with blackish annulations and relatively long spines. Abdomen brownish with transverse chevron-like black bars and with black sides. Brown areas with white, mostly small dots of varying forms and sizes. Tm I = ca. 0.13. Etymology: the latin species name "leprosus" means appearing decayed, having the appearance of infection by leprosy (Wiktionary). Size: Female 2.4-3.8 mm; male 2.4-3.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands?, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic, Chile (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Linyphia Latreille, 1804
Linyphia hortensis Sundevall, 1830
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia?, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male palp.
Linyphia triangularis (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, introduced in USA (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female venter.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Macrargus Dahl, 1886
Macrargus rufus (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Mansuphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 1996
Mansuphantes mansuetus (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine?, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Mecopisthes Simon, 1926
Mecopisthes peusi Wunderlich, 1972
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Macedonia, Slovakia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Mecopisthes silus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Slovenia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Megalepthyphantes Wunderlich, 1994
Megalepthyphantes collinus (L. Koch, 1872)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine?, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Megalepthyphantes nebulosus (Sundevall, 1830)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Juvenile hanging in web in compost bin.
Female in sheet web.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male palp.
Genus: Meioneta Hull, 1920
Characters of genus: Posterior eyes of approximately similar size or medians larger than laterals (Locket & Millidge 1953). Tm I = ca. 0.20-0.30. Some species possess lateral spines on Tibia I and II. Without a trichobothrium on metatarsus IV. Meioneta share some morphological traits with Agyneta (see genus description for Agyneta).
Meioneta fuscipalpa (C. L. Koch, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden?, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Palp and epigyne.
Meioneta rurestris (C. L. Koch, 1836)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya)?, Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Microlinyphia Gerhardt, 1928
Characters of genus: Medium sized spiders 2.8-4.6 mm, larger species are found outside Europe (van Helsdingen 1970). This species displays a large sexual dimorphism. Cephalothorax of male is longer and narrower than in female. Abdomen tubular in male and usually dark while more oblong and lighter coloured in females. Posterior medial eyes on black tubercles. Lateral eyes contiguous. Legs long and slender, most noticeable in males. Embolus long and thread-like in European species, easily visible with a lens. The chelicerae in males are long, more than half the length of the cephalothorax and inclined somewhat backwards. The epigyne is small, inconspicuous and consists of an arch anterior to the openings and a small scape-like protrusion. The arch is dark and barely more sclerotized than surrounding area.
Microlinyphia pusilla (Sundevall, 1830)
Description: Male: Carapace brown to dark brown. Legs yellow-brown without annulations but with blackish streaks on basal half of femora in dark specimens. Abdomen tubular, dark brown with one pair of white spots anteriorly (rarely two pairs). The male palp has a large looped embolus which in lateral view encircle an area about twice as big as that covered by the palpal organs. Female: Cephalothorax less elongate than in male and brown. Abdomen is shorter and higher compared to males, ovoid in dorsal view. Ventral surface of lateral and posterior surface as well as ventral surface dark brown or blackish. Dorsally light coloured with a broad dark brown median band broken posteriorly in dark spots, the first being diamond shaped. Size: Female 3-5 mm; male 3-4 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male, note large hooped embolus of palp.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Microneta Menge, 1869
Microneta viaria (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Neriene Blackwall, 1833
Neriene clathrata (Sundevall, 1830)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, venter.
Female, stridulation ridges on chelicers.
Female, tibia IV.
Female, feeding.
Female.
Palp.
Male.
Neriene emphana (Walckenaer, 1842)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Neriene montana (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult female.
Male.
Female.
Neriene peltata (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Greenland, Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Neriene radiata (Walckenaer, 1842) - Filmy dome spider
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Oedothorax Bertkau, in Förster & Bertkau, 1883
Oedothorax agrestis (Blackwall, 1853)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Oedothorax fuscus (Blackwall, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa, Azores, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male with parasitic mites.
Male with gravid parasitic mite.
Male with mite taking a stroll up the spiders femur.
Oedothorax retusus (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Oedothorax tener (Bösenberg, 1902)
Range: Germany, Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Balkans (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Palliduphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 2001
Biology: Pale coloured spiders, mostly more or less cavernicolous in lifestyle. The genus incorporates a group of former Lepthyphantes species now reclassified to the new Palliduphantes genus based on synapomorphies of the secondary genital organs (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 2001). The males of the species share some special characters including similar shaped paracymbia which are large and tub-like. Also the lamella of the palps and the epigynes share similarities, the epigynes having a very characteristic appearance in dorsal view (see Saaristo & Tanasevitch 2001 for more details on diagnostic characters). The genus is subdivided in to eight species groups bases on the morphology of the secondary genital organs (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 2001)
Characters of genus: Small to medium sized linyphiids having body lengths ranging from 1.30-2.95 mm, but species larger than 2.5 mm are few (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 2001). Pale coloured spiders, the cephalothorax and appendages range in colour from pale yellow to pale orange and the unicoloured abdomen from pale yellow to grey or greyish brown, sometimes with a greenish tinge or a faint pattern of transverse stripes or chevrons. Legs with few spines. Metatarsus IV is without a trichobotrium.
Palliduphantes byzantinus (Fage, 1931)
Range: Bulgaria, Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Macedonia, Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes pallidus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Palliduphantes spelaeorum (Kulczynski, 1914)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (Mainland), Macedonia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Balkans, Bulgaria, Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes trnovensis (Drensky, 1931)
Range: Bulgaria, Macedonia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Serbia, Macedonia, Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Pelecopsis Simon, 1864
Pelecopsis krausi Wunderlich, 1980
Range: Bulgaria, Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Balkans to Armenia (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis parallela (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Pityohyphantes Simon, 1929
Pityohyphantes phrygianus (C. L. Koch, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female guarding eggsack.
Female.
Genus: Pocadicnemis Simon, 1884
Pocadicnemis juncea Locket & Millidge, 1953
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Pocadicnemis pumila (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Porrhomma Simon, 1884
Biology: A fairly homogenous group of small spiders which are difficult to identify due to similarity of species and rather great intraspecific variation. Some species are adapted morphologically to troglodytic or subterranean lifestyle, e.g. with eyes distinctly reduced or with paler pigmentation. Depending on habitat, troglodytic species exhibit a great degree of plasticity in morphological adaptations (even leg spination varies) which further complicates identification. The species of Porrhomma are mainly found in the temperate zone of the northern Hemisphere, with most species in the Palaearctic region.
Characters of genus: There is no recent revision of the genus available. The description here is based on Locket & Millidge (1953), and Borges & Wunderlich (2008). Ocular area with some forward projecting hairs, most pronounced in males. Eyes are variable in size, in some species minute or absent. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. The species differ in leg spination, a character that is useful for grouping the species aiding identification. Male palp with no tibial apophysis. Some species possess stridulating files on coxa I while these are reduced or absent in others. The latter case is considered a derived (apomorphic) character of the genus. Tm I of British species range between 0.3-0.64 (Roberts 1987).
Porrhomma convexum (Westring, 1851)
Description: A fairly large Porrhomma species. Carapace yellow-brown to blackish brown. Ocular area with forward projecting hairs. Abdomen greyish black. Legs yellow-brown. Femur I with one or two dorsal spines and without prolateral spine. All metatarsi spineless. Tm I 0.4-0.49 (Roberts 1987). Size: 2.2-3.0 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Porrhomma microphthalmum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Porrhomma pygmaeum (Blackwall, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Prinerigone Millidge, 1988
Prinerigone vagans (Audouin, 1826)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Old World (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Scotargus Simon, 1913
Scotargus pilosus Simon, 1913
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Sintula Simon, 1884
Sintula retroversus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Great Britain (Channel Islands), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Macedonia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Stemonyphantes Menge, 1866
Stemonyphantes lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male palp.
Genus: Styloctetor Simon, 1884
Styloctetor romanus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male abdomen with spinners.
Male.
Male.
Female, epigyne.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Tallusia Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1972
Tallusia experta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Tallusia vindobonensis (Kulczynski, 1898)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central, Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Tapinocyba Simon, 1884
Tapinocyba pallens (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Armenia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Tapinopa Westring, 1851
Tapinopa longidens (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Tenuiphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 1996
Biology: Previously, members of this genus were placed in the species rich genus of Lepthyphantes. A homogenous group of species have now been transferred to the Tenuiphantes genus which is characterised by their copulatory organs. Markings can be quite variable within species, nevertheless they are sometimes useful for separating the species.
Characters of genus: Small to large linyphiids ranging from 1.7-4.1 mm body length (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1996). Males are characterized by having a sinuous embolus, often with a dentigerous protrusion at about halfway while females are characterized by having the proscapus bordered at either side by a lateral wing-like extension of the median part of the scapus (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1996). Epigynes of T. alacris females also characterized by strongly developed lateral teeth. Paracymbium with 0-3 teeth. The species differ in leg spination. Metatarsus without a trichobothrium except in T. retezaticus (endemic to Romania). Most species have uniformly coloured legs and a dark dorsal pattern on the abdomen usually composed of broad black transverse bars on a brownish background. Bars sometimes reduced to paired dots combined by thin black lines. Dorsal pattern is usually more obscure in males. Legs fairly long and with long spines.
Tenuiphantes cristatus (Menge, 1866)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Tenuiphantes monachus (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Slovenia?, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Tenuiphantes tenuis (Blackwall, 1852)
Description: Carapace brown to blackish. Anterior medials almost equidistant, with medials separated from laterals by ca. 0.5 diameter, laterals much less than twice the diameters of medials (Locket & Millidge 1953). Sternum blackish. Legs yellow-brown, fairly long and with long spines. TM 1 ca. 0.18-0.22 (Roberts 1987). Abdomen yellow-brown to almost black. Usually, dark transverse bars are present dorsally but they may be difficult to discern in specimens with dark background colours. Bars are often reduced to paired dots which may be combined by thin U- or V-bent black lines. Shining white patches are sometimes distributed across the dorsal surface of the abdomen, at other times mostly at sides if not absent completely. Epigyne anchor shaped, male palp with two teeth at each side of the paracymbium. Size: Female 2.0-3.2 mm; male 2.0-2.7 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands) (introduced), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa (elsewhere, introduced) (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female, killed by parasitic larva shortly after final moult.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Tenuiphantes zimmermanni (Bertkau, 1890)
Description: Carapace brown to blackish. Anterior medians distinctly nearer to each other than to laterals, medians separated from laterals by more than one diameter, laterals about twice the diameter of medians (Locket & Millidge 1953). Sternum blackish. Legs yellow-brown sometimes darker at joints. TM 1 ca. 0.18-0.22 (Roberts 1987). Abdomen yellow-brown to dark olive green. Usually dark transverse markings are present dorsally but they may be difficult to discern in specimens with dark background colours. Transverse marking often indistinct or broken in anterior half. Bars are usually distinct i posterior half, being straighter and thinner than anterior bars. Shining white patches are sometimes distributed across the dorsal surface of the abdomen, at other times mostly at sides if not absent completely. Some specimens lack both bars and white patches. Epigyne with relatively narrow scape posteriorly, male palp with a small outward directed tooth fairly high up on the paracymbium. Size: Female 2.2-3.1 mm; male 2.1-2.7 mm. Habitat: The species is common in leaf litter and low vegetation in many different habitats. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Tiso Simon, 1884
Characters of genus: Male head only slightly raised behind eyes. Eyes rather small. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. Tm I 0.5-0.59 (Roberts 1987). Tibiae I-IV with one spine.
Tiso vagans (Blackwall, 1834)
Description: Carapace brown to blackish (generally darker in males which also have surface somewhat reticulated (not visible with a lens). Abdomen brownish-grey to black. Legs yellow-brown to greyish-brown. Tm I 0.51-0.59 (Roberts 1987). Male palpal tibia with some stout bristles and femur and patella are both elongated. Size: Female 1.7-2.2 mm; male 1.6-2.0 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Tmeticus Menge, 1868
Characters of genus: This genus description is based on Locket & Millidge (1953) and Saito & Ono (2001) and may not encompass all species currently assigned to this genus. Male head not elevated in to lobe but head may be highly raised. Male chelicerae with a large warty tooth anteriorly. Metatarsus IV with a trichobothrium. Female tibiae I-II with two spines, tibiae III-IV with one spine. Male tibiae I-II spineless, tibiae III-IV with one short spine. Male palpal tarsus and palpal organs are relatively small in some species. The species may be classified in to two groups based on the structure of the male palpal organs (Saito & Ono 2001). One group is characterized by very long male palps and a hook-shaped patellar apophysis while tibia is without distinct apophysis (except in Tmeticus affinis which have a small dorso-distal bifid tibial apophysis). The second group possess a shorter male palp without a patellar apophysis, but with a distinct dorsal apophysis on the tibia.
Tmeticus affinis (Blackwall, 1855)
Description: Thoracic part of carapace yellow-brown, cephalic part in front of cervical furrow blackish. However, according to Locket & Millidge (1953) the carapace is reddish-brown, rather darker in male. Locket & Millidge (1953) make no mention of a two-coloured carapace so perhaps uniformly coloured carapaces occur as well. Male chelicerae with a large warty tooth anteriorly and several small warts on front and sides, these are less pronounced in females. Sternum orange-yellow with many hairs. Legs yellow-brown, Tm I 0.65-0.75. Abdomen black with four distinct sigilla. Male palpal patella and tibia elongated while tarsus and palpal organs are relatively small . Size: Female 2.5-3.0 mm; male 2.5-2.7 mm. Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands?, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Genus: Trichoncoides Denis, 1950
Trichoncoides piscator (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Trichoncus Simon, 1884
Trichoncus affinis Kulczynski, 1894
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Trichoncus hackmani Millidge, 1955
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central, Northern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Trichopterna Kulczynski, 1894
Trichopterna cito (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Troglohyphantes Joseph, 1881
Troglohyphantes dalmaticus (Kulczynski, 1914)
Range: Croatia, Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Croatia, Macedonia (Platnick 10.0).
Troglohyphantes draconis Deeleman-Reinhold, 1978
Range: Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Macedonia (Platnick 10.0).
Troglohyphantes inermis Deeleman-Reinhold, 1978
Range: Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Macedonia (Platnick 10.0).
Troglohyphantes kratochvili Drensky, 1935
Range: Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Macedonia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Walckenaeria Blackwall, 1833
Characters of genus: The members of this genus range in size from 1.35 to 4.0 mm (Millidge 1983). The male carapace in most European species is elevated, often into large lobes or modified in some other way. However, in a few species such as in W. dysderoides the male head is only slightly domed behind the eyes. Where there is a lobe this carries the posterior median eyes (Millidge 1983). In other species the male carapaces carries a projection, often furnished with hairs which may be clavate or furcated. More rarely is the carapace of the female elevated, such as in W. acuminata which carries a conical elevation. The sternum is longer than wide with the posterior end pointed between coxae IV (Locket & Millidge 1953). The pedicel is distinctly sclerotized and is quite conspicuous in some species. The abdomen is without a scutum and is unicoloured in most species, usually greyish black but occasionally light grey or yellowish brown. Tibia I and II carries two spines while III and IV carries one in the European species. Legs are unicoloured in most species, often bright orange or reddish orange. Some species have contrastingly blackened tibiae on anterior leg pairs. Spines are weak, particularly on legs I and II in males (Millidge 1983). All metatarsi with a trichobothrium, Tm I variable, ranging from 0.39-0.76 in British species (Roberts 1987). The male palpal organs are of similar form and differences are not discernible with a hand lens. Females of a few species possess characteristic epigynes which makes them identifiable in the field using a hand lens. Other characteristics of the genus (not visible with a lens) include the strongly pectinate and large superior tarsal claws of legs I and II, clear transverse striae on the lateral faces of the chelicerae and the acuminate tarsus of the female palp (Locket & Millidge 1953, Millidge 1983). The European members of the genus have been reviewed by Wunderlich (1972) and the North American by Millidge (1983).
Walckenaeria erythrina (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Corsica), Macedonia, Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia (Platnick 10.0).
Walckenaeria vigilax (Blackwall, 1853)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).