- all species listed
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Linyphiidae (Line Weaving Spiders)
Biology: The Linyphiidae is the worlds second largest spider family encompassing ca. 4320 species in more than 570 genera. The highest diversity is found in the northern temperate regions. In these regions as well as in the arctic regions spiders of this family dominates the spider fauna. The jumping spiders (Salticidae) is an even larger family but they generally require warmer conditions than the linyphiids and for this reason they are less well represented in the cooler regions. Linyphiids are found worldwide in all terrestrial biotopes and is perhaps the most widely distributed spider family. They range in size from very small to medium (1-8.5 mm body size). Most species are found at ground level but they occupy a very wide array of habitats. The members of the family build a sheet web sometimes dome shaped. The web has no retreat and the spider always hang inverted below the sheet. Larger species in particular sometimes add irregular vertical snares acting both as sheet suspension strands and barrage balloon wires impeding the flight of insects. When insects strike the vertical snares they fall down on the sheet and the spider rush to bite the prey through the sheet web. Many species disperse by air and the phenomenon of ballooning is very noticeable in this family when very dense populations try to balloon at the same time. The spiders climb up high in the vegetation and point the spinners toward the sky. In this position they let out some strands of silk and eventually the wind will lift the spiders up in the air. Often they only manage to fly a short distance but they will keep trying sometimes resulting in a layer of shimmering silk covering the vegetation. Ballooning takes place usually in late summer. Ballooning may result in spiders literally raining from the sky. Erigone atra is a very common aeronaut in late summer in some areas and on several occasions I have experienced specimens landing in my hair at short intervals, for example while I was sitting in my garden.
Characters of family: The linyphiids belong to the group of ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. The eyes are arranged in 2 rows of 4, usually heterogeneous in size with the anterior medials smaller than the rest. Frequently, the eyes are ringed with black, this being most noticeable in species with lighter coloured carapaces such as many species of the Linyphiinae subfamily. Some species adapted to dark habitats have the eyes much reduced, sometimes being very minute in size or only evidenced by pale markings under the integument (e.g. Porrhomma rosenhauri). The carapace is highly variable especially in the smaller species belonging to the Erigoninae subfamily. Males of this large subfamily frequently have the frontal region modified into strangely formed lobes or bear other types of protuberances some of which may have tufts of hairs. Some species have the carapace punctured with pits (see images of Lophomma punctatum). The males may also have sulci (grooves) running backwards from the posterior eyes. The chelicerae do not possess a lateral condyle (boss at base of chelicer). The outer side of the chelicerae have horizontal stridulating ridges visible in many species. Such ridges only occur scattered in other spider families (see for example images of ridges in Metellina stridulans of the Tetragnathidae). The labium is strongly rebordered as in the Nesticidae, Araneidae, and Tetragnathidae. The endites are usually parallel. Legs are slender and provided with spines. The number of spines on the legs is an important character for species identification when this is undertaken using the stereomicroscope. The abdomen is nearly always longer than wide sometimes with a pattern (Linyphiinae in particular) and sometimes mainly uniformly coloured, very often blackish (Erigoninae in particular). Some species posses an abdominal scutum as for example some members of the Ceratinella genus. The epigynes are variable, sometimes simple as in the Erigoninae or provided with a scapus as often seen in the Linyphiinae. The male palp often possesses an U-shaped paracymbium. The family was earlier divided in to two subfamilies, which sometimes were elevated to family status: the Linyphiidae and Erigonidae (also known as Micryphantidae). The Linyphiidae was characterized by not having tibial apophyses on the male palp, by having a claw on the female palp in most species, and by having two dorsal spines on tibia IV or if only one spine present there was one short spine on metatarsi I and II. The Erigonidae was characterized by having at least one tibial apophyses on the male palp, by lacking a claw on the female palp, and by having just a single dorsal spine on tibia IV and with the metatarsi spineless, or all spines lacking altogether. However, the family is now divided in to seven subfamilies, the Dubiaraneinae, Erigoninae, Ipainae, Linyphiinae, Micronetinae, Mynogleninae, and Stemonyphantinae. Consult recent literature or Wikipedia for lists of subfamily genera. See also Linyphiid Spiders Of The World by Andrei Tanasevitch and LinyGen: Linyphioid Genera of the World (Pimoidae and Linyphiidae) by Gustavo Hormiga, Dimitar Dimitrov, Jeremy A. Miller and Fernando Alvarez-Padilla.
Genus: Abacoproeces Simon, 1884
Abacoproeces molestus Thaler, 1973
Range: Austria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Abacoproeces saltuum (L. Koch, 1872)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Abiskoa Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 2000
Abiskoa abiskoensis (Holm, 1945)
Range: Finland, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Acartauchenius Simon, 1884
Acartauchenius depressifrons Simon, 1884
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France (Platnick 10.0).
Acartauchenius derisor (Simon, 1918)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Acartauchenius minor (Millidge, 1979)
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Acartauchenius nasutus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879)
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal, France (Platnick 10.0).
Acartauchenius sardiniensis Wunderlich, 1995
Range: Italy (Sardinia) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sardinia (Platnick 10.0).
Acartauchenius scurrilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Eggsack visible behind curtain of silk. It contained only four eggs which were relatively large compared to the spider.
Eggsack placed in cavity on underside of stone.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Habitat.
Genus: Acorigone Wunderlich, 2008
Acorigone acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992)
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Acorigone zebraneus Wunderlich, 2008
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Genus: Agnyphantes Hull, 1932
Agnyphantes expunctus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Agyneta Hull, 1911
Biology: Agyneta share some morphological traits with Meioneta including tracheae extending in to the cephalothorax as well as similar structure of the secondary genital organs. This has resulted in synonymization and transfer of species from Meioneta to Agyneta (see for example Saaristo 1973, Roberts 1987 and Saaristo & Koponen 1998). However, the present view is to consider this incorrect. Millidge (1977) point out that the two genera most likely constitute two phylogenetic lines due to non-overlapping Tm I range, a view that has not yet been proven wrong (The World Spider Catalog by Platnick). There are a few other differences between the genera. Meioneta lacks a trichobothrium on metatarsus IV and possess different cheliceral teeth than Agyneta. Some Meioneta species possess lateral spines on tibia I and II. Members of Agyneta have only dorsal spines on tibia I-II. From a practical point of view, it is convenient to uphold the two genera due to the fairly high number of species, totalling 30 in Europe alone. Species rich genera are unhandy in terms of species identification. Identification of single females in the two genera may be difficult as the members have very similar epigynes, and it is sometimes stated that a female can be identified only from its habitat and association with the male (Saaristo & Koponen 1998). However, some help may be obtained from the degree of swelling and blackening of the female palp which differs among species.
Characters of genus: Posterior eyes of approximately similar size (Locket & Millidge, 1953). Tm I = 0.65-0.9. With a trichobothrium on metatarsus IV. Lateral spines on Tibia I and II absent.
Agyneta allosubtilis Loksa, 1965
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Agyneta arietans (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Germany, Italy (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Slovenia? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Poland (Platnick 10.0).
Agyneta breviceps Hippa & Oksala, 1985
Range: Finland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Finland (Platnick 10.0).
Agyneta cauta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1902)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Agyneta conigera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1863)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, Congo (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Agyneta decora (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Description: Carapace brown. Abdomen grey to black. Legs brown with tibiae and metatarsi darker. Female with strongly swollen palps. Male palp elevated dorsally, appearing subquadratic in lateral view. Size: Female 1.8-2.5 mm; male 1.8-2.0 mm. Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Epigyne.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Agyneta olivacea (Emerton, 1882)
Range: Finland, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Lithuania?, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Agyneta ramosa Jackson, 1912
Description: Carapace brown, rather elongate with eyes situated fairly close together. Legs slender, darker distally. Abdomen coloured as carapace or darker, sometimes grey to greyish black. Female palp not strongly swollen. Male palp elevated dorsally, appearing subquadratic in lateral view. Size: Female 2.0-2.5 mm; male 2.0-2.3 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Agyneta rugosa Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Portugal (Azores), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Agyneta subtilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1863)
Description: Carapace brown. Abdomen grey to black. Legs orange brown or brown with tibiae I and metatarsus I darker. Female palp strongly swollen. Male palp elevated dorsally, appearing subquadratic in lateral view. Size: Female 2.0-2.7 mm; male 2.0-2.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Agyneta suecica Holm, 1950
Range: Finland, Norway (Mainland), Sweden, Ukraine? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden, Finland (Platnick 10.0).
Agyneta trifurcata Hippa & Oksala, 1985
Range: Finland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Finland, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Alioranus Simon, 1926
Alioranus pastoralis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Cyprus, Greece (Crete) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Crete, Cyprus, Israel, Tajikistan (Platnick 10.0).
Alioranus pauper (Simon, 1881)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Allomengea Strand, 1912
Biology: This genus has been reviewed by van Helsdingen (1974). There are three European species of which A. scopigera and A. vidua have been recorded from much of central and northern Europe, while A. dentisetis is restricted to Russia. At least the European species seem to prefer wetlands with a well developed herbaceous stratum but only sparse covering by trees. Here they are found on plants or under detritus or stones. The species have a late summer to early fall mating period.
Characters of genus: Small to medium-sized spiders with European species ranging from 2.9-5.6 mm in body length (van Helsdingen 1974). Carapace not modified in males. Eyes subequal with anterior medials slightly smaller than the others. Chelicerae with well-developed stridulating ridges. Abdomen with or without a pattern. Legs long and thin. Femora without spines, tibia with several spines including ventral ones, metatarsi I and II with one ventral spine only (occasionally none), metatarsi III and IV with more numerous spines. Tm I 0.65-0.80. Metatarsi IV with a trichobothrium (A. scopigera has several trichobothria in addition to principal one). The males of the genus are easily recognized by the palp, which is armed with a bunch of stout spines arising from the tip of a horn-like projection of the cymbium. Epigyne is formed as a small to large more or less triangular sclerotized projection depending on species.
Allomengea dentisetis (Grube, 1861)
Range: Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Allomengea scopigera (Grube, 1859) - Greater bristle-palped line weaver
Description: The carapace and legs are orange brown. Eyes of subequal size, the anterior medials close together, the lateral eyes touching. The abdomen is yellow brown to grey, dorsum sometimes with greyish bars. TM I 0.74-0.80 (van Helsdingen 1974). Leg IV longer than leg I in both sexes. Spination of tibiae distinctly different from the other species of the genus (van Helsdingen 1974). In addition to the principal trichobothria there is a series of 2-3 shorter trichobothria on all metatarsi (not present in other species). The male palp is provided with a number of closely grouped stout spines easily visible with a lens. The female epigyne is also characteristic and consists of a large triangular sclerotized projection intermediate in size compared to the smaller one of A. vidua and the larger one of A. dentisetis. Size: Female 4-5.5 mm; male 4-4.5 mm. Range: Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male, note the characteristic brushes on palps.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Allomengea vidua (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Anguliphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 1996
Anguliphantes angulipalpis (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Anguliphantes monticola (Kulczynski, 1881)
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Anguliphantes silli (Weiss, 1987)
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Anguliphantes tripartitus (Miller & Svaton, 1978)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Antrohyphantes Dumitrescu, 1971
Antrohyphantes balcanicus (Drensky, 1931)
Range: Bulgaria, Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Antrohyphantes rhodopensis (Drensky, 1931)
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Antrohyphantes sophianus (Drensky, 1931)
Range: Bulgaria, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Aphileta Hull, 1920
Aphileta misera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1882)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female with large phoretic mite.
Genus: Araeoncus Simon, 1884
Araeoncus altissimus Simon, 1884
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Araeoncus anguineus (L. Koch, 1869)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Romania, Slovenia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Araeoncus caucasicus Tanasevitch, 1987
Range: Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Iran, Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Araeoncus clivifrons Deltshev, 1987
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Araeoncus convexus Tullgren, 1955
Range: Estonia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden, Estonia (Platnick 10.0).
Araeoncus crassiceps (Westring, 1861)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Araeoncus curvatus Tullgren, 1955
Range: Estonia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden, Estonia (Platnick 10.0).
Araeoncus discedens (Simon, 1881)
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Araeoncus dispar Tullgren, 1955
Range: Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden (Platnick 10.0).
Araeoncus humilis (Blackwall, 1841)
male 1.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, New Zealand (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Araeoncus longiusculus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: France (Corsica), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Araeoncus sicanus Brignoli, 1979
Range: Italy (Sicily) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sicily (Platnick 10.0).
Araeoncus tauricus Gnelitsa, 2005
Range: Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Araeoncus toubkal Bosmans, 1996
Range: Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Morocco (Platnick 10.0).
Araeoncus tuberculatus Tullgren, 1955
Range: Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden (Platnick 10.0).
Araeoncus vaporariorum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Araeoncus vorkutensis Tanasevitch, 1984
Range: Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Archaraeoncus Tanasevitch, 1987
Archaraeoncus prospiciens (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Bulgaria, Russia (Southern European), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe to China (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Arcterigone Eskov & Marusik, 1994
Arcterigone pilifrons (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Asthenargus Simon & Fage, 1922
Asthenargus bracianus Miller, 1938
Range: Austria, Croatia, Italy (Mainland), Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central, Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Asthenargus carpaticus Weiss, 1998
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Asthenargus helveticus Schenkel, 1936
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Poland, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland to Poland (Platnick 10.0).
Asthenargus longispinus (Simon, 1914)
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France (Platnick 10.0).
Asthenargus paganus (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Epigyne.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Asthenargus perforatus Schenkel, 1929
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Asthenargus placidus (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Baryphyma Simon, 1884
Characters of genus: A group of species with rather similar palpal organs and epigynes. Carapaces of males usually with dome shaped-elevation. The shape of the elevation in lateral view is an important character aiding identification. The shapes of the male palpal tibiae and tibial apophyses are equally important. Male palps are generally relatively large compared to size of prosoma. All species possess rows of stout bristles beneath the anterior femora and tibia (Millidge 1977). Tm I 0.75-0.95, Tm IV present (Roberts 1985). Tibiae I and II with two dorsal spines, tibiae III and IV with one dorsal spine (Millidge 1977).
Baryphyma gowerense (Locket, 1965)
Range: Estonia, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Poland, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Baryphyma insigne (Palmgren, 1976)
Range: Finland, Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Finland (Platnick 10.0).
Baryphyma maritimum (Crocker & Parker, 1970)
Range: Belgium, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Netherlands (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Baryphyma pratense (Blackwall, 1861)
Range: Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Byelorussia (Platnick 10.0).
Baryphyma proclive (Simon, 1884)
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Baryphyma trifrons (O. P.-Cambridge, 1863)
Size: Female 1.9-2.1 mm; male 1.7-1.8 mm. Range: Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Bathyphantes Menge, 1866
Characters of genus: Palp of female with tarsal claw. Legs rather long and slender. All tibiae with two dorsal spines, metatarsi spineless (Locket & Millidge 1953).
Bathyphantes approximatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Bathyphantes enslini Strand, 1910
Range: Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Bathyphantes eumenis (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Czech Republic, Finland?, France (Mainland), Germany, Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Bathyphantes gracilis (Blackwall, 1841)
Description: Carapace brown to dark brown, not elevated in male. Abdomen variable in colour, sometimes uniform in colour varying from light brown to black. The most common variety has black triangular chevrons on a brown or olive-green background. However abdomens of Faroese specimens inspected so far have been uniformly dark coloured. Legs yellow-brown. Tm IV absent. Position of Tm I 0.25-0.30 (Roberts 1985). Size: Female 2.0-2.5 mm; male 1.5-2.0 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands?, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female, dark colourform.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Bathyphantes humilis (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Bathyphantes jeniseicus Eskov, 1979
Range: Finland? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Finland, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Bathyphantes meadei (Blackwall, 1853) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Bathyphantes nigrinus (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Bathyphantes ohlerti Simon, 1884
Range: Poland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Poland (Platnick 10.0).
Bathyphantes parvulus (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Bathyphantes pusiolus (Fickert, 1875)
Range: Czech Republic (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Bathyphantes reprobus (Kulczynski, 1916)
Range: Finland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Bathyphantes setiger F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1894
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Bathyphantes similis Kulczynski, 1894
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Finland?, Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Bathyphantes simillimus (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Poland, Russia (Northern European), Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Bathyphantes simillimus buchari Ruzicka, 1988
Range: Czech Republic (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Bathyphantes vittiger Simon, 1884
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Birgerius Saaristo, 1973
Birgerius microps (Simon, 1911)
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Bolephthyphantes Strand, 1901
Bolephthyphantes index (Thorell, 1856)
Description: Carapace yellow brown with darker median and marginal bands (Nentwig et al. 2003). Sternum greyish yellow brown. Chelicers light yellow. Legs coloured as carapace. Abdomen is dark grey, dorsally with numerous white spots. Male with strong forward directed hairs in cephalic region (Marusik in prep.) very similar to Bolyphantes luteolus, a similar sized species which overlap in distribution (perhaps not in altitude range). Size: 2.5-3.4 mm. Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Faroe Islands?, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Iceland, Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Greenland, Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Bolyphantes C. L. Koch, 1837
Characters of genus: Fairly large linyphiidsof the subfamily Micronetinae having body lengths up to 5 mm (Saaristo & Tanasesevitch 2000). In some species the male carapace is elevated in the ocular area which is furnished with numerous forward directed bristles. Carapace only somewhat raised in female. Abdomen with pattern. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. Legs long and slender and well armed with spines. Femora without dorsal spines. Tibiae and metatarsi with numerous spines. Tm I 0.15-0.18 (Saaristo & Tanasesevitch 2000). Abdomen with pattern. Males have a stout spine on the palpal patella.
Bolyphantes alticeps (Sundevall, 1833)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Bolyphantes kilpisjaerviensis Palmgren, 1975
Range: Finland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Finland (Platnick 10.0).
Bolyphantes kolosvaryi (Caporiacco, 1936)
Range: Bulgaria, Italy (Mainland), Slovenia, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland, Italy, Balkans (Platnick 10.0).
Bolyphantes lamellaris Tanasevitch, 1990
Range: Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy, Greece, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Bolyphantes luteolus (Blackwall, 1833)
Description: The carapace is brown sometimes with a more or less distinct dark median stripe. In some specimens dark lateral bands are present as well. The female clypeus is distinctly concave. Eyes are ringed with black. The male has the projecting eyeregion being rounded. The male palpal patellar spine is stout with the apical end jagged like a broken stick. Legs are brown with no markings. The abdomen of both sexes are light yellow brown with many small white patches. There is a dark median stripe and some dark blotches at the sides. Size: Female 3.5-4 mm; male 3-3.5 mm. Habitat: Fairly common in moist conditions on bushes and among low vegetation on heaths and in coastal dunes, sometimes also in forests. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, venter.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Bolyphantes nigropictus Simon, 1884
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Bolyphantes punctulatus (Holm, 1939)
Range: Finland, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Scandinavia, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Bordea Bosmans, 1995
Bordea cavicola (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France (Platnick 10.0).
Bordea negrei (Dresco, 1951)
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Canariellanum Wunderlich, 1987
Canariellanum albidum Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Canariellanum arborense Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Canariellanum hierroense Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Canariellanum palmense Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Canariphantes Wunderlich, 1992
Canariphantes alpicola Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Canariphantes homonymus (Denis, 1934)
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal, France, Algeria, Morocco (Platnick 10.0).
Canariphantes nanus (Kulczynski, 1898)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central, Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Canariphantes zonatus (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Italy (Mainland)?, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal, France, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia (Platnick 10.0).
Canariphantes zonatus lucifugus (Simon, 1929)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Caracladus Simon, 1884
Caracladus avicula (L. Koch, 1869)
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Romania, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Caracladus crassipalpus (Menge, 1868 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Caracladus leberti (Roewer, 1942)
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western, Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Carorita Duffey & Merrett, 1963
Carorita limnaea (Crosby & Bishop, 1927)
Range: Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Caviphantes Oi, 1960
Caviphantes dobrogicus (Dumitrescu & Miller, 1962)
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Caviphantes saxetorum (Hull, 1916)
Range: Austria, Belgium, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Poland, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Centromerita Dahl, 1912
Characters of genus: All tibiae with two dorsal spines, lateral spines and some stout spines ventrally (Locket & Millidge 1953). Metatarsus without a trichobothrium. Femora I and II each with a dorsal and prolateral spine. The male palpal tibia has a bunch of stout serrated bristles.
Centromerita bicolor (Blackwall, 1833)
Description: Carapace and legs unicoloured brown to dark brown. Posterior median eyes one diameter or more apart. Male head with a number of forward directed spines, fewer in females. Abdomen brown to dark brown. If brown then the abdomen has the same colour as the carapace and legs. If dark brown then the abdomen is darker than the carapace and legs. Size: 3.0-3.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Centromerita concinna (Thorell, 1875)
Description: Carapace brown to dark brown sometimes with a dark margin. Posterior median eyes less than one diameter apart. Male head with short spines, almost absent in females. Abdomen brown to dark brown. If brown then the abdomen has the same colour as the carapace and legs. If dark brown then the abdomen is darker than the carapace and legs. Size: Female 2.0-3.0 mm; male 2.0-2.6 mm. Range: Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary?, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Centromerus Dahl, 1886
Characters of genus: Legs fairly short and stout (Locket & Millidge 1953). Metatarsi I and II with a small dorsal spine. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. Tibia I sometimes with a prolateral spine. Tibia IV with one or two dorsal spines. Epigyne with a scape in most species.
Centromerus abditus Gnelitsa, 2007
Range: Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus acutidentatus Deltshev, 2002
Range: Bulgaria, Macedonia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Yugoslavia (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus albidus Simon, 1929
Range: France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus andrei Dresco, 1952
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus andriescui Weiss, 1987
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus anoculus Wunderlich, 1995
Range: Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus arcanus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)
Description: Carapace pale yellow to brown. Sternum yellow, reticulated faintly with black and sometimes margined with black (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen brown (as carapace and legs) or grey to blackish grey. Legs pale yellow to brown as carapace. Tibia IV with one dorsal spine. Female epigyne with long scapus, about 5 times longer than wide. Size: Female 2.0-2.5 mm; male 1.6-2.4 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female. Note the elongate scapus stretching back from the epigyne.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Centromerus balazuci Dresco, 1952
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus bonaeviae Brignoli, 1979
Range: Italy (Sardinia) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sardinia (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus brevivulvatus Dahl, 1912
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus bulgarianus (Drensky, 1931)
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus capucinus (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus cavernarum (L. Koch, 1872)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus chappuisi Fage, 1931
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus cinctus (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica, Algeria, Tunisia (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus clarus (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus cottarellii Brignoli, 1979
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus crinitus Rosca, 1935
Range: Moldova, Romania, Ukraine? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus dacicus Dumitrescu & Georgescu, 1980
Range: Romania, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania, Serbia (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus dilutus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Description: A fairly small member of the genus. Carapace yellow brown to brown sometimes with darker striae. Abdomen grey to blackish. Legs yellow to yellow brown often paler than carapace. Leg spines rather short and fine (Locket & Millidge 1953). Tibia IV with one dorsal spine only. The epigynal scape is about 10 times longer than wide and require good light to be viewable using a lens. Size: Female 1.2-1.6 mm; male 1.2-1.5 mm. Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands?, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Latvia, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Centromerus europaeus (Simon, 1911)
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France, Algeria, Balkans (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus fagicola Denis, 1948
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus fuerteventurensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus gentilis Dumitrescu & Georgescu, 1980
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus incilium (L. Koch, 1881)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Centromerus lakatnikensis (Drensky, 1931)
Range: Bulgaria, Macedonia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus leruthi Fage, 1933
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Slovenia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus levitarsis (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia?, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female, epigyne.
Female.
Centromerus ludovici Bösenberg, 1899
Range: Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus milleri Deltshev, 1974
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus minutissimus Merrett & Powell, 1993
Range: Germany, Great Britain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: England, Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus obenbergeri Kratochvíl & Miller, 1938
Range: Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Montenegro (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus obscurus Bösenberg, 1902
Range: Austria, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus pabulator (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus pallens Bösenberg, 1902 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus paradoxus (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus pasquinii Brignoli, 1971
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus persimilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1912)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus piccolo Weiss, 1996
Range: Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus prudens (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)
Description: Carapace yellow to yellow brown (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen is grey. Legs coloured as carapace with relatively long and stout spines. Epigynal scapus relatively short and wide, about 1.5 longer than wide. Tibia IV with two dorsal spines. Size: 2.3-2.5 mm. Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Central European), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Centromerus prudens electus (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus puddui Brignoli, 1979
Range: Italy (Sardinia) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sardinia (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus satyrus (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus sellarius (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Croatia, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Latvia?, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus semiater (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus serbicus Deltshev, 2002
Range: Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Yugoslavia (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus serratus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus setosus Miller & Kratochvíl, 1940
Range: Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Slovakia (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus sexoculatus Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus silvicola (Kulczynski, 1887)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary?, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe to Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus sinus (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus subalpinus Lessert, 1907
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Slovenia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland, Germany, Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus subcaecus Kulczynski, 1914
Range: Austria, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus succinus (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus sylvaticus (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Centromerus sylvaticus paucidentatus Deltshev, 1983
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus timidus (Simon, 1884)
Range: Romania, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus tridentinus Caporiacco, 1952
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus unctus (L. Koch, 1870)
Range: Romania, Ukraine? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus valkanovi Deltshev, 1983
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus variegatus Denis, 1962
Range: Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Centromerus viduus Fage, 1931
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Centrophantes Miller & Polenec, 1975
Centrophantes crosbyi (Fage & Kratochvíl, 1933)
Range: Italy (Mainland), Slovenia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Centrophantes roeweri (Wiehle, 1961)
Range: Austria, Slovenia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Ceraticelus Simon, 1884
Ceraticelus bulbosus (Emerton, 1882)
Range: Finland, Netherlands, Poland, Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Ceratinella Emerton, 1882
Characters of genus: Compact dark spiders with coriaceous abdomens (Locket & Millidge 1953). The male carapace is slightly domed in head region. The legs are short and robust with metatarsi equal or slightly longer than tarsi. Tibial spines very short and resemble hairs. The abdomen is globular in females, less so in males. A dorsal scutum is present in many species.
Ceratinella apollonii Caporiacco, 1938
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Ceratinella brevipes (Westring, 1851)
Description: Carapace dark brown to blackish. Legs reddish brown sometimes with segments distal to patella lighter. The abdomen is blackish, coriaceous and without scutum in females. Two pairs of sigilla are present, less distinct in males. The scutum and sigilla are difficult to see on live specimens but usually very distinct on alcohol preserved specimens. Size: Female 1.6-1.8 mm; male 1.3-1.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Ceratinella brevis (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia?, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Ceratinella major Kulczynski, 1894
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Ceratinella marcui Rosca, 1932
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Ceratinella ornatula (Crosby & Bishop, 1925)
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: USA, Canada, Alaska, Greenland (Platnick 10.0).
Ceratinella rotunda (Menge, 1868)
Range: Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Ceratinella rubella (Menge, 1868) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Ceratinella scabrosa (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Ceratinella wideri (Thorell, 1871)
Range: Belarus, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Latvia?, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Ceratinopsis Emerton, 1882
Ceratinopsis acripes (Denis, 1962)
Range: Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Ceratinopsis infuscata (Denis, 1962)
Range: Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Cineta Simon, 1884 (Nomen dubium)
Cineta genistae Simon, 1884 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Cinetata Wunderlich, 1995
Cinetata gradata (Simon, 1881)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Cnephalocotes Simon, 1884
Cnephalocotes obscurus (Blackwall, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Cnephalocotes tristis Denis, 1954
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Collinsia (Thorell 1871)
Characters of genus: Male head not elevated. Metatarsi slightly longer than tarsi. Tibia I-III with two spines, IV with only one (Locket & Millidge 1953).
Collinsia borea (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Russia (Novaya Zemlya) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Alaska (Platnick 10.0).
Collinsia caliginosa (L. Koch, 1879)
Global range: Russia, Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Collinsia caliginosa nemenziana Thaler, 1980
Range: Austria, Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Collinsia despaxi (Denis, 1950)
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Collinsia distincta (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Collinsia hibernica (Simon, 1926)
Range: France (Mainland), Russia (Novaya Zemlya) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Collinsia holmgreni (Thorell, 1871)
Description: Carapace yellow brown to brown. Sternum yellow and suffused and reticulated with black (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen grey to black. Size: Female 2.0-2.5 mm; male 1.9-2.2 mm. Range: Faroe Islands, Finland, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Collinsia inerrans (O. P.-Cambridge, 1885)
Range: Austria, Belgium, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Collinsia spetsbergensis (Thorell, 1871)
Range: Iceland, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Russia (Franz Jozef Land), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Collinsia thulensis (Jackson, 1934)
Range: Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Spitsbergen (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Cresmatoneta Simon, 1929
Cresmatoneta eleonorae (Costa, 1883)
Range: Italy (Sardinia) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sardinia (Platnick 10.0).
Cresmatoneta mutinensis (Canestrini, 1868)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Romania, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Crosbyarachne Charitonov, 1937
Crosbyarachne bukovskyi Charitonov, 1937
Range: Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Dactylopisthes Simon, 1884
Dactylopisthes digiticeps (Simon, 1881)
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Dactylopisthes mirificus (Georgescu, 1976)
Range: Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania, Russia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Dactylopisthes video (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1947)
Range: Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Mongolia, Alaska, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Decipiphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 1996
Decipiphantes decipiens (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Finland, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Finland, Russia, Mongolia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Diastanillus Simon, 1926
Diastanillus pecuarius (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Dicymbium Menge, 1868
Dicymbium nigrum (Blackwall, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Dicymbium nigrum brevisetosum Locket, 1962
Range: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Dicymbium tibiale (Blackwall, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Ireland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male. Note the swollen Tibia I.
Male.
Male with mite.
Male with mite.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Didectoprocnemis Denis, 1949
Didectoprocnemis cirtensis (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Diplocentria Hull, 1911
Characters of genus: Male head not elevated. Eyes large, all about 0.5 diameter apart (Locket & Millidge 1953). Tibiae I-III with two spines, IV with just one. Metatarsi longer than tarsi (leg I: 1.2 times; leg IV: 1.7 times).
Diplocentria bidentata (Emerton, 1882)
Description: Carapace yellow brown. Eyes large and situated fairly close together, all about 0.5 diameter apart (Locket & Millidge 1953). Legs yellow brown to brown, similar coloured as carapace. Abdomen is grey. Size: Female 1.8-2.2 mm; male 1.6-1.9 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female, shape of epigyne in lateral view.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Diplocentria forsslundi Holm, 1939
Range: Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocentria mediocris (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocentria rectangulata (Emerton, 1915)
Range: Austria, Finland, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Diplocephalus Bertkau, 1883
Characters of genus: Male head elevated in to a variety of lobes (Locket & Millidge 1953). Tibiae I-II with two spines, III-IV with just one spine (spines sometimes reduced or absent in males). Metatarsi longer than tarsi: leg I: 1.2-1.3 times, leg IV: 1.5-1.6 times (Locket & Millidge 1953).
Diplocephalus alpinus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Croatia, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy, Central Europe to Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus alpinus strandi Kolosvry, 1937
Range: Hungary (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus alpinus subrufus Rosca, 1935
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus altimontanus Deltshev, 1984
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus arnoi Isaia, 2005
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus arvernus Denis, 1948
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus barbiger (Roewer, 1955)
Range: Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus bicephalus (Simon, 1884)
Range: Bulgaria, France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus caecus Denis, 1952
Range: Belgium (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Belgium (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus connatus Bertkau, 1889
Range: Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus connatus jacksoni O. P.-Cambridge, 1903
Range: Great Britain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus crassilobus (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Romania, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus cristatus (Blackwall, 1833)
Description: Carapace brown to greyish black. Striae not visible in live specimens. Male head elevated anteriorly divided by a transverse groove. Eyes fairly large in female and posterior medials are about 0.7 diameter apart and about 0.5 diameter apart from laterals. Eyes are smaller in males and due to the elevation of the head farther apart (2-3 diameter between posterior medials and laterals). Abdomen is grey to black. Legs are grey (recently moulted specimens?) to reddish brown. Size: Female 1.8-2.5 mm; male 1.7-2.1 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic, New Zealand, Falkland Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Diplocephalus culminicola Simon, 1884
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus dentatus Tullgren, 1955
Range: Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Northern, Central Europe to Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Diplocephalus fallaciosus (Bertkau, in Förster & Bertkau, 1883) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus foraminifer (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Bulgaria, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Spain (Mainland), Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus foraminifer thyrsiger (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus graecus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern, Central Europe, North Africa (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus helleri (L. Koch, 1869)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus hungaricus Kulczynski, 1915
Range: Hungary (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus latifrons (O. P.-Cambridge, 1863)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Diplocephalus longicarpus (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus lusiscus (Simon, 1872)
Range: Belgium, France (Mainland), Germany, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus marijae Bosmans, 2010
Range: Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Diplocephalus pavesii Pesarini, 1996
Range: Italy (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus permixtus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Description: Carapace brown to greyish black. Striae not visible in live specimens. Male head elevated anteriorly divided by a transverse groove. Male carapace rather elongate and projecting considerably over chelicerae. In the female posterior medials are about 0.8 diameter apart and about 0.5 diameter apart from laterals. Eyes are smaller in males and due to the elevation of the head farther apart (2.5 diameter between posterior medials and laterals). Abdomen is grey to black. Legs are brown to yellow brown. Tibia I spineless in males. Size: Female 1.6-1.9 mm; male 1.5-1.9 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Iceland, Ireland, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Diplocephalus picinus (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Diplocephalus procer (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus protuberans (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Poland, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus pseudocrassilobus Gnelitsa, 2006
Range: Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus pullinus Simon, 1918
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus rectilobus (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus rostratus Schenkel, 1934
Range: Austria, Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus semiglobosus (Westring, 1861)
Range: Finland, Germany, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden, Finland, Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus subrostratus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)
Range: Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus tiberinus (Caporiacco, 1936)
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Diplocephalus turcicus Brignoli, 1972
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece, Turkey (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Diplostyla Emerton, 1882
Diplostyla concolor (Wider, 1834)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Madeira), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Dismodicus Simon, 1884
Dismodicus bifrons (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Dismodicus decemoculatus (Emerton, 1882)
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: USA, Canada, Greenland (Platnick 10.0).
Dismodicus elevatus (C. L. Koch, 1838)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Dismodicus fungiceps Denis, 1944
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Donacochara Simon, 1884
Donacochara speciosa (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female before oviposition.
Female after oviposition.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
male palp.
Male abdominal markings.
Genus: Drapetisca Menge, 1866
Drapetisca socialis (Sundevall, 1833)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Drepanotylus Holm, 1945
Characters of genus: Both sexes domed behind the eyes. All tibiae with two dorsal spines, tibia I with an additional prolateral spine.
Drepanotylus borealis Holm, 1945
Range: Finland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden, Finland, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Drepanotylus pirinicus Deltshev, 1992
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Drepanotylus uncatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)
Description: Carapace brown to dark brown, characteristically shaped with a protruding head having an almost straight anterior edge. The carapace is domed behind the eyes in both sexes which is best observed in lateral view. The carapace is provided with a median row of stout bristles and some hairs in the ocular area. Legs are orange brown. Leg spines weak. The abdomen is yellow brown to black. Male palpal tibia with prominent curved apophysis ending in a hook. Female epigyne heart-shaped but difficult to discern with a lens. Size: Female 2.5-3.2 mm; male 2.5-3.0 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Dresconella Denis, 1950
Dresconella nivicola (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Entelecara Simon, 1884
Characters of genus: Most species are rather similar in general appearance. Males have the head region domed. Female tibiae I-II with two spines, III-IV with just one. In males spines are much reduced, usually absent altogether from tibiae I-II (Locket & Millidge 1953). Metatarsus IV with a trichobothrium in most species. Male palp with two prominent tibial apophyses.
Entelecara acuminata (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Entelecara aestiva Simon, 1918
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Entelecara cacuminum Denis, 1954
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Entelecara congenera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Entelecara erecta (L. Koch, 1869) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Entelecara errata O. P.-Cambridge, 1913
Description: Carapace dark brown. Female anterior medial eyes smaller than laterals and posterior medials. Male anterior medials slightly smaller than posterior medials. Male head domed behind anterior medial eyes carrying the posterior medial eyes. A sulcus containing a small pit runs back from each posterior lateral eye. Legs are light brown. Metatarsus IV with a trichobothrium, but often difficult to see. The abdomen is black. Size: Female 1.5-1.9 mm; male 1.5-1.7 mm. Range: Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Entelecara erythropus (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Entelecara flavipes (Blackwall, 1834)
Range: Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Entelecara forsslundi Tullgren, 1955
Range: Estonia, Russia (Central European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden, Russia, Estonia (Platnick 10.0).
Entelecara frontalis (Ohlert, 1867) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Entelecara helfridae Tullgren, 1955
Range: Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden (Platnick 10.0).
Entelecara italica Thaler, 1984
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Entelecara klefbecki Tullgren, 1955
Range: Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden (Platnick 10.0).
Entelecara media Kulczynski, 1887
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Iceland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Entelecara obscura Miller, 1971
Range: Czech Republic, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Czech Rep, Slovakia (Platnick 10.0).
Entelecara omissa O. P.-Cambridge, 1902
Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Entelecara schmitzi Kulczynski, 1905
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira, France (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Epigyne.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Entelecara strandi Kolosvry, 1934
Range: Hungary, Slovakia? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary (Platnick 10.0).
Entelecara truncatifrons (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Corsica, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Entelecara turbinata Simon, 1918
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Erigone Audouin, 1826
Characters of genus: Edges of carapace strongly dentate in males, less so in females. Male head domed, but not raised in to a lobe. The chelicers are robust and furnished with warts and teeth anteriorly being more strongly developed in males than in females. Tibiae I-III with two spines, IV with just one. Metatarsi slightly longer than tarsi: leg I: 1.3-1.4 times, leg IV: ca.1.6 times (Locket & Millidge 1953). Male palp with characteristic large ventral patellar apophysis at the distal end. Palpal femur often with ventral knobs and teeth along length.
Erigone aletris Crosby & Bishop, 1928
Range: Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: USA, Canada, Scotland (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone arctica (White, 1852)
Description: Carapace dark brown to black with dentate edges prominent in males. Male chelicerae with pronounced warts but not visible with a lens. Female abdomen brown to black, male abdomen dark brown to black. Legs yellow-brown to brown. Size: Female 2.6-3.4 mm; male 2.6-3.2 mm. Range: Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya), Russia (NW. European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Erigone arctica maritima Kulczynski, 1902
Range: Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Northern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone arctica palaearctica Braendegaard, 1934
Range: Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Scandinavia, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone arctica soerenseni Holm, 1956
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Greenland (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone arcticola Chamberlin & Ivie, 1947
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Alaska (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone atra Blackwall, 1833
Description: Carapace dark brown to black with dentate edges prominent in males but usually absent in females. Male chelicerae with only a few minute warts. Male palpal femur with teeth extending to about two thirds of its length. Male palpal tibia without a ventral tooth. Female abdomen brown to black, male abdomen dark brown to black. Legs yellow-brown to brown. Size: Female 2.0-2.6 mm; male 1.9-2.5 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya)?, Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Canary Islands), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Erigone autumnalis Emerton, 1882
Range: Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Azores), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: USA to Panama, West Indies, Azores, Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Epigyne.
Erigone brunneonigra Lebert, 1877 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone carinata Blackwall, 1861
Range: Ireland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: (not listed by Platnick) (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone cristatopalpus Simon, 1884
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone decens Thorell, 1871
Range: Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone dentigera O. P.-Cambridge, 1874
Range: Austria, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Northern European), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone dentipalpis (Wider, 1834)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone dumitrescuae Georgescu, 1969
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone fluctuans O. P.-Cambridge, 1875
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone hypoarctica Eskov, 1989
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone impudica L. Koch, 1869 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone jaegeri Baehr, 1984
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Liechtenstein, Romania, Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe, China (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone jugorum Simon, 1884
Range: Andorra, France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone kochi (Heer, 1845) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone longipalpis (Sundevall, 1830)
Range: Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya)?, Slovenia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Erigone longipalpis meridionalis Simon, 1926
Range: France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: England, France (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone longipalpis pirini Deltshev, 1983
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone marina L. Koch, 1882
Range: Spain (Balearic Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mallorca (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone muscorum Lebert, 1877
Global range: Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone nigrimana Thorell, 1875
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone pallidula Blackwall, 1861
Range: Ireland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: (not listed by Platnick) (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone promiscua (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)
Description: A rather small species. Carapace dark brown to black with dentate edges prominent in males but usually absent in females. Male palpal femur with teeth extending to about two thirds of its length. Male palpal tibia with a small ventral tooth. Female abdomen brown to black, male abdomen dark brown to black. Legs yellow-brown to brown. Size: Female 1.8-2.5 mm; male 1.9-2.4 mm. Range: Belgium, Faroe Islands, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Latvia?, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Erigone psychrophila Thorell, 1871
Description: Carapace dark brown to black with dentate edges prominent in males but absent in females. Male chelicerae with large warts anteriorly. Male palpal femur with teeth extending to about two thirds of its length and sometimes also one additional large tooth at apical end. Patellar apophysis is long curved and tapering. Male palpal tibia without a ventral tooth. Female abdomen yellow-brown to black, male abdomen dark brown to black. Legs yellow-brown to orange-brown. Size: Female 2.4-3.1 mm; male 2.0-3.0 mm. Range: Faroe Islands, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Russia (Franz Jozef Land), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Erigone quadripunctata Fickert, 1876 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone remota L. Koch, 1869
Range: Andorra, Austria, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Romania, Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya), Slovenia?, Switzerland, Ukraine? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone remota dentigera Simon, 1926
Range: France (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone simillima Keyserling, 1886
Range: Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Mongolia, Alaska, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone spadix Thorell, 1875
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone strandi Kolosvry, 1934
Range: Hungary, Slovakia? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone svenssoni Holm, 1975
Range: Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Scandinavia, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone tenuimana Simon, 1884
Range: France (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone tirolensis L. Koch, 1872
Description: Carapace dark brown to black with dentate edges prominent in males, minute or absent in females. Male chelicers with 6-7 fairly large warts on anterior surface (Locket & Millidge 1953). but these are not visible with a lens. Female abdomen brown to black, male abdomen dark brown to black. Legs yellow-brown to brown. Male palpal femur almost straight, ventral teeth distributed along practically whole length. Size: Female 2.2-2.8 mm; male 2.1-2.5 mm. Range: Austria, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Poland, Romania, Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Erigone welchi Jackson, 1911
Range: Finland, France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Latvia?, Moldova, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Ireland to Estonia, Moldavia (Platnick 10.0).
Erigone whymperi (O. P.-Cambridge, 1877)
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Canada, Greenland, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Erigonella Dahl, 1901
Erigonella hiemalis (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Erigonella ignobilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male, note rugose sternum.
Male.
Male.
Erigonella subelevata (L. Koch, 1869)
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Erigonella subelevata pyrenaea Denis, 1964
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Erigonoplus Simon, 1884
Erigonoplus alticeps (Denis, 1951)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Erigonoplus castellanus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Erigonoplus dilatus (Denis, 1949)
Range: Andorra, France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Andorra (Platnick 10.0).
Erigonoplus galophilus Gnelitsa, 2007
Range: Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Erigonoplus globipes (L. Koch, 1872)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Erigonoplus inclarus (Simon, 1881)
Range: France (Corsica) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Erigonoplus inspinosus Wunderlich, 1995
Range: Greece (Cyclades) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Erigonoplus jarmilae (Miller, 1943)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria, Czech Rep, Slovakia, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Erigonoplus justus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Belgium, France (Mainland), Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Belgium, France, Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Erigonoplus nigrocaeruleus (Simon, 1881)
Range: France (Corsica) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Erigonoplus nobilis Thaler, 1991
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Erigonoplus setosus Wunderlich, 1995
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Croatia, Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Erigonoplus simplex Millidge, 1979
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Erigonoplus spinifemuralis Dimitrov, 2003
Range: Bulgaria, Russia (Southern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Erigonoplus turriger (Simon, 1881)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Estrandia Blauvelt, 1936
Estrandia grandaeva (Keyserling, 1886)
Range: Finland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Evansia O. P.-Cambridge, 1900
Evansia merens O. P.-Cambridge, 1900
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female, abdominal markings consisting of vague chevrons.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Fageiella Kratochvl, 1934
Fageiella ensigera Deeleman-Reinhold, 1974
Range: Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Serbia (Platnick 10.0).
Fageiella patellata (Kulczynski, 1913)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southeastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Flagelliphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 1996
Flagelliphantes bergstromi (Schenkel, 1931)
Range: Finland, Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Floronia Simon, 1887
Floronia bucculenta (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Formiphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 1996
Formiphantes lepthyphantiformis (Strand, 1907)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Frontinellina van Helsdingen, 1969
Frontinellina dearmata (Kulczynski, 1899)
Range: Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Frontinellina frutetorum (C. L. Koch, 1834)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Frontiphantes Wunderlich, 1987
Frontiphantes fulgurenotatus (Schenkel, 1938)
Range: Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Glyphesis Simon, 1926
Glyphesis cottonae (La Touche, 1946)
Range: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Glyphesis nemoralis Esyunin & Efimik, 1994
Range: Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Glyphesis servulus (Simon, 1881)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Glyphesis taoplesius Wunderlich, 1969
Range: Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Hungary (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Gnathonarium Karsch, 1881
Gnathonarium dentatum (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male, characteristic palps shaped like a droplet.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male palp.
Male.
Genus: Gonatium Menge, 1868
Biology: This genus has been reviewed by Millidge (1981). It is possible to recognise the members by the following combination of somatic characters: leg spination, presence of a tricobothrium on metatarsus IV, value of Tm I, and by the way the tarsal claws are pectinated (see description below). The genus is, however, also defined by the structure of the genitals which share characters thought to be derived (see Millidge (1981) for details).
Characters of genus: The species range in size from 2.0-3.7 mm. The cephalothorax and legs are bright orange, orange red or reddish brown. The male head carries no lobe but is slightly raised. Sternum at least as wide as long with coxae IV widely separated. Legs fairly long and slender. Leg spines are short, shorter and weaker in males than in females. Males have tibia I and to a lesser degree tibia II curved and swollen distally. They are furnished ventrally with many long hairs or bristles. Also metatarsi I and II and femora I and II are provided with many short spines or bristles ventrally. There is a single spine on each tibia in both sexes. All metatarsi with a trichobothrium. Tm I range from 0.75-0.95 (Millidge 1981). The tarsal claws are pectinated, consisting of narrow, needle-like teeth. The pectination is different in almost all other groups of spiders with pectinate claws (Millidge 1981). Abdomen globular, often reddish with four sigilla dorsally. There is no scutum. The male palpal femur is swollen in some species. The epigynes of all Gonatium species have the same general appearance, and depending on the number of species at a given locality specimens may be identifiable with a lens.
Gonatium biimpressum Simon, 1884
Range: France (Corsica), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica to Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Gonatium ensipotens (Simon, 1881)
Range: France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southwestern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Gonatium fuscum Bösenberg, 1902
Range: Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Gonatium geniculosum Simon, 1918
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Gonatium gilbum Bösenberg, 1902
Range: Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Gonatium hilare (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Gonatium nemorivagum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Bulgaria, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Gonatium occidentale Simon, 1918
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Spain, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Gonatium orientale Fage, 1931
Range: Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania, Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Gonatium pallidum Bösenberg, 1902
Range: Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Gonatium paradoxum (L. Koch, 1869)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Gonatium rubellum (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Gonatium rubens (Blackwall, 1833)
Description: Both sexes entirely orange to reddish-brown with abdomen sometimes darker, usually reddish grey, rarely blackish. Abdomen with four distinct sigilla. Males have prominent head region and rather closely spaced eyes ringed with black. Tibia I is curved, thickened distally and with denser hairing ventrally. Male palpal tibia and femur swollen, the latter with numerous small black spines and with a single, pointed tooth distally. Size: Female 2.6-3.3 mm; male 2.5-2.7 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Moulting female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Gonatium strugaense Drensky, 1929
Range: Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Macedonia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Gongylidiellum Simon, 1884
Characters of genus: The genus contains mostly small species less than 2 mm body length. Genus characters are not visible with a hand lens but require a stereomicroscope. Male head not elevated. Apparently, males use sound production in courtship as the branchial opercula are provided with stridulating ridges opposing a tooth-like outgrowth on coxae IV. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. Tibiae I-II with two spines, III-IV with just one.
Gongylidiellum compar (Westring, 1861)
Range: Belarus, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Gongylidiellum crassipes Denis, 1952
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Gongylidiellum edentatum Miller, 1951
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central, southern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Gongylidiellum incertum O. P.-Cambridge, 1913 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Scotland (Platnick 10.0).
Gongylidiellum latebricola (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Gongylidiellum murcidum Simon, 1884
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Gongylidiellum parvum Blackwall, 1841 (Nomen dubium)
Range: Slovenia? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Britain (Platnick 10.0).
Gongylidiellum vivum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Description: Small species with reddish brown carapace and pale, yellowish, grey or brownish grey abdomen. Males are generally darker than females. At closer inspection abdomens of lighter coloured specimens are mottled whitish grey - light yellowish grey. The median line of the carapace has some long, forward directed spines. Eyes relatively large and the eye group appears rather compact. Legs orange brown. Males may be identified in the field using a lens by the shape of the tibial apophysis viewed from above. Size: Female 1.5-1.8 mm; male 1.2-1.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Gongylidium Menge, 1868
Gongylidium gebhardti Kolosvry, 1934
Range: Hungary, Slovakia? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary (Platnick 10.0).
Gongylidium rufipes (Linnaeus, 1758)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Gongylidium soror Thaler, 1993
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Halorates Hull, 1911
Characters of genus: Male carapace not modified, both sexes similar in general appearance (Roberts 1985). Chelicerae of males with a large cylindrical tubercle, just above the outer row of teeth (Locket & Millidge 1953). Metatarsus IV almost twice as long as tarsus IV. All tibia with two spines, but no lateral ones (Locket & Millidge 1953).
Halorates reprobus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879)
Description: Robust appearance. Carapace brown with darker striae, abdomen grey to black (Locket & Millidge 1953). Sternum yellow-brown, legs brown. Tm I 0.6-07. Tm IV present. Tibial spines long, but fine and hair-like. Size: Female 2.5-4 mm; male 2.5-3 mm. Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Helophora Menge, 1866
Helophora insignis (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary?, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Heterotrichoncus Wunderlich, 1970
Heterotrichoncus pusillus (Miller, 1958)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria, Czech Rep, Slovakia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Hilaira Simon, 1884
Characters of genus: Although fairly small Linyphiinae species they appear as large species of Erigoninae due to the generally dark colours. The carapace is broad in front. The front half of the carapace is domed, however much less so in females than in males. The males are separable in the field by the shape of the dome in lateral view using a lens (see drawings of carapaces in Roberts, 1987). Chelicers appear robust. Tibiae I-IV with two dorsal spines with one additional prolateral spine on tibia I (Locket & Millidge, 1951). Male palp complex and with large paracymbium and with tibial apophysis. Note that H. frigida recently has been transferred to the genus Oreoneta.
Hilaira consimilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: No data (Platnick 10.0).
Hilaira excisa (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Hilaira gibbosa Tanasevitch, 1982
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Mongolia, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Hilaira glacialis (Thorell, 1871)
Range: Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Norway, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Hilaira herniosa (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Finland, Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Hilaira incondita (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Hilaira nivalis Holm, 1937
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Hilaira nubigena Hull, 1911
Description: A fairly large member of the genus with females reaching 5 mm. Carapace dark orange-brown to dark brown. Both females and males have some rather short spine-like hairs in ocular area and behind eyes. The male carapace is domed behind the eyes and is furnished with many rather long, stout hairs. Abdomen black. Legs yellow to orange-brown. Metatarsus I of males is swollen and bears in middle third of length about 20 stout spines of about the same length as the diameter of the tibia at widest point. Size: Female 3-5 mm; male 3-4 mm. Range: Faroe Islands, Finland, Great Britain (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, Alaska (Platnick 10.0).
Hilaira pervicax Hull, 1908
Range: Finland, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Hilaira proletaria (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Alaska (Platnick 10.0).
Hilaira vexatrix (O. P.-Cambridge, 1877)
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Horcotes Crosby & Bishop, 1933
Horcotes strandi (Sytshevskaja, 1935)
Range: Finland, Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Finland, Russia, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Hybauchenidium Holm, 1973
Hybauchenidium aquilonare (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Alaska, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Hybauchenidium ferrumequinum (Grube, 1861)
Range: Finland, Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden, Finland, Russia, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Hybauchenidium gibbosum (Sørensen, 1898)
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Russia, Alaska, Canada, USA, Greenland (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Hybocoptus Simon, 1884
Hybocoptus corrugis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland), Netherlands, Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Hybocoptus dubius Denis, 1950
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Hylyphanthes Simon, 1884
Hylyphanthes graminicola (Sundevall, 1830)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Hylyphanthes nigritus (Simon, 1881)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Luxemburg, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Hypomma Dahl, 1886
Characters of genus: The commonest species (including the Faroese species) are characterized by orange prosoma, legs and black, glossy abdomens with four distinct sigilla. Male head elevated into two large lobes divided longitudinally. Eyes are situated in front of lobes. Tibia I-IV with one short dorsal spines less than diameter of tibia in length. Male palp with two tibial apophyses, one short and small, one long and slender.
Hypomma aemonicum Deltshev, 2005
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Hypomma bituberculatum (Wider, 1834)
Description: Carapace and legs orange to bright reddish brown. Head in male raised into large, longitudinally divided lobe that are paler than the rest of the carapace. Ocular region suffused with black. Tibial spines short i females, absent in males. Size: Female 2.5-3.0 mm; male 2.2-2.6 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands?, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Hypomma brevitibiale (Wunderlich, 1980)
Range: Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Macedonia (Platnick 10.0).
Hypomma cornutum (Blackwall, 1833)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Hypomma fulvum (Bösenberg, 1902)
Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Hypselistes Simon, 1894
Hypselistes florens (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Great Britain (Mainland)? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: USA, Canada, possibly Britain (Platnick 10.0).
Hypselistes jacksoni (O. P.-Cambridge, 1902)
Range: Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Hypselistes semiflavus (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Hypsocephalus Millidge, 1978
Hypsocephalus dahli (Lessert, 1909)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Hypsocephalus huberti (Millidge, 1975)
Range: France (Corsica) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Hypsocephalus nesiotes (Simon, 1914)
Range: France (Corsica) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Hypsocephalus paulae (Simon, 1918)
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Switzerland, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Hypsocephalus pusillus (Menge, 1869) (Nomen dubium)
Range: Spain (Mainland)? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Iberoneta Deeleman-Reinhold, 1984
Iberoneta nasewoa Deeleman-Reinhold, 1984
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Icariella Brignoli, 1979
Icariella hauseri Brignoli, 1979
Range: Greece (North Aegean Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Improphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 1996
Biology: Species belonging to this genus have similarities to species of Lepthyphantes and the cluster of genera generated from it in recent years. Undivided Lepthyphantes would contain 396 species which is too many to handle. As a consequence many former Lepthyphantes species have been grouped in to new genera mainly based on small details in the copulatory organs.
Characters of genus: Small linyphiids ranging form 1.45 to slightly longer than 2 mm body length (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1996). Legs not annulated or banded. Tm IV without a trichobothrium. Abdomen grey to black without pattern. Males are characterized by the sickle-shaped embolus with open sulcus and slightly reduced carina (not visible with a hand lens). Epigynes are protruding and large.
Improphantes complicatus (Emerton, 1882)
Description: Both males and females have carapace and legs pale yellow-brown and grey abdomens (Locket & Millidge 1953). Tm I ca. = 0.2. Metatarsi with one spine each Size: 1.7-2.2 mm. Range: Austria, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female, note the characteristic shape of the projecting epigyne in lateral view.
Female.
Female.
Improphantes decolor (Westring, 1861)
Range: Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (NW. European), Spain (Mainland), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa (Platnick 10.0).
Improphantes furcabilis (Wunderlich, 1987)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Improphantes geniculatus (Kulczynski, 1898)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Improphantes holmi (Kronestedt, 1975)
Range: Finland, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Improphantes improbulus (Simon, 1929)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Improphantes multidentatus (Wunderlich, 1987)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Improphantes nitidus (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine?, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Incestophantes Tanasevitch, 1992
Incestophantes annulatus (Kulczynski, 1882)
Range: Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Incestophantes crucifer (Menge, 1866)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Incestophantes frigidus (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland)?, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Slovenia?, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Incestophantes incestoides (Tanasevitch & Eskov, 1987)
Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Incestophantes incestus (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Mongolia (Platnick 10.0).
Incestophantes kochiellus (Strand, 1900)
Range: Finland, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, China (Platnick 10.0).
Incestophantes kotulai (Kulczynski, 1904)
Range: Austria, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Incestophantes laricetorum (Tanasevitch & Eskov, 1987)
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Ipa Saaristo, 2007
Ipa keyserlingi (Ausserer, 1867)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male, note the characteristic forked lamella of the palp.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Ipa spasskyi (Tanasevitch, 1986)
Range: Russia (Eastern European), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Turkey to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Ipa terrenus (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Islandiana Brændegaard, 1932
Islandiana falsifica (Keyserling, 1886)
Range: Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Islandiana princeps Braendegaard, 1932
Range: Iceland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: USA, Canada, Greenland, Iceland (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Jacksonella Millidge, 1951
Jacksonella falconeri (Jackson, 1908)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Janetschekia Schenkel, 1939
Janetschekia monodon (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Kaestneria Wiehle, 1956
Kaestneria dorsalis (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Kaestneria pullata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1863)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Kaestneria torrentum (Kulczynski, 1882)
Range: Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Karita Tanasevitch, 2007
Karita paludosa (Duffey, 1971)
Range: Belgium, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Ireland, Britain, Belgium, Germany, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Kikimora Eskov, 1988
Kikimora palustris Eskov, 1988
Range: Finland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Finland, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Kratochviliella Miller, 1938
Kratochviliella bicapitata Miller, 1938
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Labulla Simon, 1884
Labulla flahaulti Simon, 1914
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Labulla machadoi Hormiga & Scharff, 2005
Range: Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal (Platnick 10.0).
Labulla thoracica (Wider, 1834)
Description: This is one of the larger member of the Line Weaving Spider family. The abdomen is rather variable in colour but with a very distinctive black pattern. Size: Female 3.5-6.5 mm; male 4.5-5.5 mm. Habitat: The spider spins it sheet web at the base of tree trunks, among exposed roots, in holes in the ground or tree hollows or among low vegetation i shady places. Range: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Lasiargus Kulczynski, 1894
Lasiargus hirsutus (Menge, 1869)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Lepthyphantes Menge, 1866
Biology: Due to the high number of species in this genus (formerly almost 400) many former Lepthyphantes species have been grouped in to new genera mainly based on small details in the copulatory organs. Saaristo & Tanasevitch (1996) limit the genus to only five species of which only two are European, but this is apparently not followed by Platnick.
Characters of genus: Medium to large linyphiids ranging form 2.5 to 4.5 mm body length (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1996). Legs clearly annulated in European species. Tm IV without trichobothrium. Abdomen with a distinct pattern, usually composed of broad black transverse markings formed as bars, bands or chevrons on a grey background. Abdomens may be dotted with some whitish spots. Males are characterized by the sickle-shaped embolus with tight sulcus and large carina (not visible with a hand lens). Epigynes wit large scape arising from the inside of the epigynal cavity. Note that there is some disagreements on the delineation of the genus. The genus description here is based on a narrow conception as given by Saaristo & Tanasevitch (1996).
Lepthyphantes acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Palp and epigyne.
Lepthyphantes aegeus Caporiacco, 1948
Range: Greece (Dodecanese Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes agnellus Maurer & Thaler, 1988
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes albuloides (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Cyprus? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cyprus, Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes anguliformis Loksa, 1966
Range: Hungary (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: (not listed by Platnick) (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes bacelarae Schenkel, 1938
Range: Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes balearicus Denis, 1961
Range: Spain (Balearic Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Balearic Is (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes beckeri Wunderlich, 1973
Range: Germany, Great Britain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes beroni Deltshev, 1979
Range: Greece (Crete) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes beshkovi Deltshev, 1979
Range: Greece (Crete) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes bigerrensis Simon, 1929
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes brignolianus Deltshev, 1979
Range: Greece (Crete) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes carlittensis Denis, 1952
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes centromeroides Kulczynski, 1914
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Balkans, Bulgaria, Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes centromeroides carpathicus Dumitrescu & Georgescu, 1970
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes constantinescui Georgescu, 1989
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes corfuensis Wunderlich, 1995
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes corsicos Wunderlich, 1980
Range: France (Corsica) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes dilutus (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes eleonorae Wunderlich, 1995
Range: Italy (Sardinia) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sardinia (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes encaustus (Becker, 1879)
Range: Moldova, Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Moldavia (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes eugeni Roewer, 1942
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes fagei Machado, 1939
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes gadesi Fage, 1931
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes garganicus Caporiacco, 1951
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes hamifer Simon, 1884
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes huberti Wunderlich, 1980
Range: France (Corsica) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes ibericus Ribera, 1981
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes impudicus Kulczynski, 1909
Range: Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes ivanovi Pakhorukov, 1981 (Nomen dubium)
Range: Russia (Central European)? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes kratochvili Fage, 1945
Range: Greece (Crete) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes leprosus (Ohlert, 1865) - House line-weaver
Description: Carapace yellow-brown to brown with darker striae (Locket & Millidge 1953). Legs similarly coloured but with blackish annulations and relatively long spines. Abdomen brownish with transverse chevron-like black bars and with black sides. Brown areas with white, mostly small dots of varying forms and sizes. Tm I = ca. 0.13. Etymology: the latin species name "leprosus" means appearing decayed, having the appearance of infection by leprosy (Wiktionary). Size: Female 2.4-3.8 mm; male 2.4-3.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands?, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic, Chile (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Lepthyphantes leucopygus Denis, 1939
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes ligulifer Denis, 1952
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes lundbladi Schenkel, 1938
Range: Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes luteipes (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, Japan (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes magnesiae Brignoli, 1979
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes mauli Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes meillonae Denis, 1953
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes melanotus Drensky, 1921 (Nomen dubium)
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes messapicus Caporiacco, 1939
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes minutus (Blackwall, 1833)
Description: Lepthyphantes minutus is one of the larger Lepthyphantes species despite that the species name indicate the opposite. The explanation is that the species earlier was assigned to the Linyphia genus which consists of relatively larger species. The abdomen has a beatifully golden colouration with ligther spots. Habitat: The species is common in woods where i build a sheet web at the bases of tree trunks, under logs and in holes of trees. Range: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female, venter.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Lepthyphantes moratus Hull, 1912 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes nitidior Simon, 1929
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes nodifer Simon, 1884
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes notabilis Kulczynski, 1887
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes ollivieri Denis, 1957
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes opilio Simon, 1929
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes palmeroensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes pannonicus Kolosvry, 1935
Range: Hungary (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes paoloi Wunderlich, 1995
Range: Italy (Sardinia) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sardinia (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes phallifer Fage, 1931
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes ritae Bosmans, 1985
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes sardous Gozo, 1908
Range: Italy (Sardinia) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sardinia (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes seppoi Bosmans in prep.
Lepthyphantes suldalensis Strand, 1903
Global range: Norway (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes tenerrimus Simon, 1929
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes tenoides Kolosváry, 1938 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Balkans (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes thienemanni Schenkel, 1925
Range: Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes todillus Simon, 1929
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes turbatrix (O. P.-Cambridge, 1877)
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: North America, Greenland (Platnick 10.0).
Lepthyphantes zaragozai Ribera, 1981
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Leptorhoptrum Kulczynski, 1894
Characters of genus: This genus holds only one, fairly large species with simple genitals.
Leptorhoptrum robustum (Westring, 1851)
Description: Carapace grey, yellow-brown or brown, darker in head region. Chelicers robust. Legs yellow-brown. Tm I ca. 0.54 (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen grey or black with some pubescence. The epigyne is simple with a projecting sclerotized ridge. The male palp is small, slender and simple. Size: Female 3.2-4.8 mm; male 3.0-4.3 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Male.
Male, consuming a worm.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Leptothrix Menge, 1869
Leptothrix hardyi (Blackwall, 1850)
Range: Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Lessertia Smith, 1908
Lessertia barbara (Simon, 1884)
Range: Italy (Sicily), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, Morocco, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Lessertia dentichelis (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Canary Is, Madeira, Canada, New Zealand (Platnick 10.0).
Palp.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Lessertinella Denis, 1947
Lessertinella carpatica Weiss, 1979
Range: Romania, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Slovakia, Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Lessertinella kulczynskii (Lessert, 1910)
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Linyphia Latreille, 1804
Linyphia alpicola van Helsdingen, 1969
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia coronaria C. L. Koch, 1837 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia delicatula Walckenaer, 1842 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia frondosa C. L. Koch, 1833 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia furcigera Canestrini, 1873 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Sardinia (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia furva Blackwall, 1841 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia hortensis Sundevall, 1830
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia?, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male palp.
Linyphia lugubris Walckenaer, 1842 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia maura Thorell, 1875
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands)?, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia mimonti Simon, 1884
Range: Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy, Greece, Lebanon (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia nasata Blackwall, 1864 (Nomen dubium)
Range: Ireland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia nigella Blackwall, 1836 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia obesa Thorell, 1875
Range: Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia polita Blackwall, 1870
Range: Italy (Sicily) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sicily (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia pulchella Blackwall, 1846 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia punctata Blackwall, 1870 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia ripariola L. Koch, in Canestrini & Pavesi, 1868 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia tenella Blackwall, 1854 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia tenuipalpis Simon, 1884
Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male palp.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Linyphia triangularis (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, introduced in USA (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female venter.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Linyphia triangularis juniperina Kolosvry, 1933
Range: Hungary (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary (Platnick 10.0).
Linyphia ulicicolens Franganillo, 1920
Range: Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: (not listed by Platnick) (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Lophomma Menge, 1868
Lophomma punctatum (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Macrargus Dahl, 1886
Macrargus boreus Holm, 1968
Range: Estonia, Finland, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Central European), Russia (NW. European), Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden, Finland, Russia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Macrargus carpenteri (O. P.-Cambridge, 1894)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Macrargus excavatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1882)
Range: Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Macrargus multesimus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Belarus, Finland, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Macrargus rufus (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Maculoncus Wunderlich, 1995
Maculoncus parvipalpus Wunderlich, 1995
Range: Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Mansuphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 1996
Mansuphantes arciger (Kulczynski, 1882)
Range: Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Romania, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Mansuphantes aridus (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Austria, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland, Austria, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Mansuphantes auruncus (Brignoli, 1979)
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Mansuphantes fragilis (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Romania, Slovakia?, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Mansuphantes gladiola (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Mansuphantes mansuetus (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine?, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Mansuphantes pseudoarciger (Wunderlich, 1985)
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Mansuphantes rectilamellus (Deltshev, 1988)
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Mansuphantes rossii (Caporiacco, 1927)
Range: Austria, Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Mansuphantes simoni (Kulczynski, 1894)
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Romania, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Maro O. P.-Cambridge, 1906
Maro lehtineni Saaristo, 1971
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Norway (Mainland), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Maro lepidus Casemir, 1961
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Maro minutus O. P.-Cambridge, 1906
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Maro sibiricus Eskov, 1980
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Maro sublestus Falconer, 1915
Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Masikia Millidge, 1984
Masikia indistincta (Kulczynski, 1908)
Range: Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Alaska, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Maso Simon, 1884
Maso gallicus Simon, 1894
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Maso sundevalli (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Mecopisthes Simon, 1926
Mecopisthes alter Thaler, 1991
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Mecopisthes crassirostris (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Mecopisthes latinus Millidge, 1978
Range: Italy (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Mecopisthes millidgei Wunderlich, 1995
Range: Italy (Sardinia) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sardinia (Platnick 10.0).
Mecopisthes nasutus Wunderlich, 1995
Range: Greece (Cyclades) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Mecopisthes nicaeensis (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Mecopisthes peuceticus Caporiacco, 1951
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Mecopisthes peusi Wunderlich, 1972
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Macedonia, Slovakia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Mecopisthes pictonicus Denis, 1949
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Mecopisthes pumilio Wunderlich, 2008
Range: Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Mecopisthes silus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Slovenia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Mecynargus Kulczynski, 1894
Characters of genus: Males of this genus are characterized by a short embolus lying in a loop in the distal part of the bulbus (not visible with a lens). Epigynes broader than long or as broad as long. Males of some species has the carapace slightly domed behind the eyes or elevated conically (Roberts 1987, Marusik in prep.).
Mecynargus borealis (Jackson, 1930)
Range: Finland, Iceland, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Mecynargus brocchus (L. Koch, 1872)
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Mecynargus foveatus (Dahl, 1912)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Poland, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe to Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Mecynargus longus (Kulczynski, 1882)
Range: Poland, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Yugoslavia? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Mecynargus monticola (Holm, 1943)
Range: Finland, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden, Finland, Russia, Mongolia, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Mecynargus morulus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)
Description: Head not elevated in to lobe in male but nevertheless rather characteristic in shape. Carapace yellow to dark brown with darker striae (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen greyish black, rarely brown. Legs coloured as carapace or lighter. Tm I ca. 0.7-0.77, Tm IV absent (Locket & Millidge 1953, Roberts 1987). Only species in genus in which males possess distinct stridulating ridges on the branchial opercula with an opposing tooth on each Coxa IV (Roberts 1987, Marusik in prep.). Stridulating ridges are much less developed in females (Locket & Millidge 1953). Size: Female 1.7-2.0 mm; male 1.6-1.9 mm. Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Faroe Islands, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Greenland, Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Mecynargus paetulus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Northern European), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Mecynargus pyrenaeus (Denis, 1950)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Mecynargus sphagnicola (Holm, 1939)
Range: Finland, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Greenland, Scandinavia, Russia, Mongolia, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Mecynargus tungusicus (Eskov, 1981)
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Kyrgyzstan, China, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Megalepthyphantes Wunderlich, 1994
Megalepthyphantes collinus (L. Koch, 1872)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine?, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Megalepthyphantes lydiae Wunderlich, 1994
Range: Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Megalepthyphantes nebulosus (Sundevall, 1830)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Juvenile hanging in web in compost bin.
Female in sheet web.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male palp.
Megalepthyphantes pseudocollinus Saaristo, 1997
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary?, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Meioneta Hull, 1920
Characters of genus: Posterior eyes of approximately similar size or medians larger than laterals (Locket & Millidge 1953). Tm I = ca. 0.20-0.30. Some species possess lateral spines on Tibia I and II. Without a trichobothrium on metatarsus IV. Meioneta share some morphological traits with Agyneta (see genus description for Agyneta).
Meioneta affinis (Kulczynski, 1898)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Meioneta alpica (Tanasevitch, 2000)
Range: Austria, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta canariensis (Wunderlich, 1987)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Meioneta depigmentata (Wunderlich, 2008)
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Meioneta equestris (L. Koch, 1881)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta fuscipalpa (C. L. Koch, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden?, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Palp and epigyne.
Meioneta gulosa (L. Koch, 1869)
Description: Carapace yellow brown to dark brown, abdomen grey to black (Locket & Millidge 1953). Posterior medials only slightly larger than laterals. Female palp not swollen but suffused with black. Tarsus of male palp distinctly elevated. Epigyne very similar to those of other species of the genus. Size: Female 1.7-2.1 mm; male 1.8-2.0 mm. Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Meioneta innotabilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1863)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Meioneta jacksoni (Brændegård, 1937)
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: USA, Canada, Greenland (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta lugubris (Blackwall, 1834) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta maritima (Emerton, 1919)
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta milleri Thaler et al., 1997
Range: Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Czech Rep, Slovakia (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta mollis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta mossica Schikora, 1993
Range: Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Britain to Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta nigripes (Simon, 1884)
Description: Very dark species. Carapace and legs dark brown, abdomen black. Posterior medial eyes are almost twice as large as anterior medials. Female palp not swollen but suffused with black. Tarsus of male palp only slightly elevated. Epigyne very similar to other species of the genus. Size: Female 1.7-2.2 mm; male 1.6-1.8 mm. Range: Austria, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya), Russia (NW. European), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Canada, Greenland, Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Meioneta nigripes nivicola (Simon, 1929)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta orites (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Austria, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta pseudorurestris (Wunderlich, 1980)
Range: Cyprus, France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Italy (Sardinia), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, Cyprus, Sardinia, Algeria, Tunisia (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta punctata (Wunderlich, 1995)
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta resima (L. Koch, 1881)
Range: Russia (NW. European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta ressli Wunderlich, 1973
Range: Austria, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Switzerland, Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta ripariensis (Tanasevitch, 1984)
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta rufidorsa Denis, 1961
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta rurestris (C. L. Koch, 1836)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya)?, Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Meioneta rurestris ovata (C. L. Koch, 1833) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta saxatilis (Blackwall, 1844)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Meioneta similis (Kulczynski, 1926)
Range: Finland, Iceland, Norway (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Iceland, Finland, Russia, Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta simplicitarsis (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia, Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta saaristoi (Tanasevitch, 2000)
Range: Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta tenera (Menge, 1869) (Nomen dubium)
Range: Belarus, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Meioneta tibialis (Tanasevitch, 2005)
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Mermessus O. P.-Cambridge, 1899
Mermessus bryantae (Ivie & Barrows, 1935)
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: North America, Cuba, Venezuela, Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Palp.
Male.
Mermessus denticulatus (Banks, 1898)
Range: Belgium (introduced), Germany (introduced), Netherlands, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: USA to Colombia (Europe, introduced) (Platnick 10.0).
Mermessus fradeorum (Berland, 1932)
Range: Portugal (Azores), Spain (Canary Islands) (introduced) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Palp and epigyne.
Mermessus maculatus (Banks, 1892)
Range: Switzerland (introduced) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Canada to Guatemala (Platnick 10.0).
Mermessus trilobatus (Emerton, 1882)
Range: Austria, Belgium, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Portugal (Azores), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Mesasigone Tanasevitch, 1989
Mesasigone mira Tanasevitch, 1989
Range: Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Iran, Kazakhstan to China (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Metapanamomops Millidge, 1977
Metapanamomops kaestneri (Wiehle, 1961)
Range: Finland, Germany, Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany to Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Metopobactrus Simon, 1884
Metopobactrus ascitus (Kulczynski, 1894)
Range: Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Metopobactrus cavernicola Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Metopobactrus deserticola Loksa, 1981
Range: Hungary (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary (Platnick 10.0).
Metopobactrus falcifrons Simon, 1884
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Metopobactrus nadigi Thaler, 1976
Range: Austria, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland, Austria, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Metopobactrus nodicornis Schenkel, 1927
Range: Austria, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland, Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Metopobactrus orbelicus Deltshev, 1985
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Metopobactrus prominulus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Metopobactrus schenkeli Thaler, 1976
Range: Italy (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Metopobactrus triangulatus Strand, 1902 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Norway (Platnick 10.0).
Metopobactrus verticalis (Simon, 1881)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Micrargus Dahl, 1886
Micrargus alpinus Relys & Weiss, 1997
Range: Austria, Germany, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Switzerland, Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Micrargus apertus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Micrargus cupidon (Simon, 1913)
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Micrargus dilutus (Denis, 1948)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Micrargus dissimilis Denis, 1950
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Micrargus georgescuae Millidge, 1976
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Micrargus herbigradus (Blackwall, 1854)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Micrargus incomtus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Micrargus laudatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1881)
Range: Belgium, Estonia, France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Micrargus pervicax (Denis, 1947)
Range: Austria?, France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Micrargus subaequalis (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Microctenonyx Dahl, 1886
Microctenonyx apuliae (Caporiacco, 1951)
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Microctenonyx subitaneus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (elsewhere, introduced) (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Microlinyphia Gerhardt, 1928
Characters of genus: Medium sized spiders 2.8-4.6 mm, larger species are found outside Europe (van Helsdingen 1970). This species displays a large sexual dimorphism. Cephalothorax of male is longer and narrower than in female. Abdomen tubular in male and usually dark while more oblong and lighter coloured in females. Posterior medial eyes on black tubercles. Lateral eyes contiguous. Legs long and slender, most noticeable in males. Embolus long and thread-like in European species, easily visible with a lens. The chelicerae in males are long, more than half the length of the cephalothorax and inclined somewhat backwards. The epigyne is small, inconspicuous and consists of an arch anterior to the openings and a small scape-like protrusion. The arch is dark and barely more sclerotized than surrounding area.
Microlinyphia impigra (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Microlinyphia johnsoni (Blackwall, 1859)
Range: Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira, Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Egg sack, covering silk removed showing content of 14 eggs.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Microlinyphia pusilla (Sundevall, 1830)
Description: Male: Carapace brown to dark brown. Legs yellow-brown without annulations but with blackish streaks on basal half of femora in dark specimens. Abdomen tubular, dark brown with one pair of white spots anteriorly (rarely two pairs). The male palp has a large looped embolus which in lateral view encircle an area about twice as big as that covered by the palpal organs. Female: Cephalothorax less elongate than in male and brown. Abdomen is shorter and higher compared to males, ovoid in dorsal view. Ventral surface of lateral and posterior surface as well as ventral surface dark brown or blackish. Dorsally light coloured with a broad dark brown median band broken posteriorly in dark spots, the first being diamond shaped. Size: Female 3-5 mm; male 3-4 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male, note large hooped embolus of palp.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Microlinyphia pusilla quadripunctata (Strand, 1903)
Range: Norway (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Norway (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Microneta Menge, 1869
Microneta caestata (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden (Platnick 10.0).
Microneta inops (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden (Platnick 10.0).
Microneta iracunda (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879)
Range: Latvia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Latvia (Platnick 10.0).
Microneta viaria (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Micryphantes C. L. Koch, 1833 (Nomen dubium)
Micryphantes albertinae (Walckenaer, 1842) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes alutacius (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes bicolor (Hahn, 1833) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes bicuspidatus C. L. Koch, 1838 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes bipunctatus Simon, 1864 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Belgium (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes ceciliae (Walckenaer, 1842) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes columella Grube, 1859 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes crassipes Menge, 1869 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes flavipes C. L. Koch, 1835 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes galeatus C. L. Koch, 1833 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes hiemalis C. L. Koch, 1837 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes lividus Menge, 1869 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes longipes C. L. Koch, 1833 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes lugens C. L. Koch, 1837 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes mathilde Walckenaer, 1842 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes olivaceus C. L. Koch, 1836 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes ovatus C. L. Koch, 1833 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes punctulatus C. L. Koch, 1836 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes rufipalpus C. L. Koch, 1836 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes sulcicollis Grube, 1859 (Nomen dubium)
Range: Russia (Central European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes sulculus C. L. Koch, 1837 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes terrestris (Wider, 1834) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Micryphantes villosus C. L. Koch, 1845 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Midia Saaristo & Wunderlich, 1995
Midia midas (Simon, 1884)
Range: Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Han.
Han.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, note the characteristic, large epigyne.
Female abdominal markings.
Habitat.
Habitat, a pair of handsome fat old guys.
This tree was habitat for both Midia midas and the rare pseudoscorpion Anthrenochernes stellae.
Juvenile female two moults from adulthood. The abdominal markings are characteristic but the legs are not yet red as in adults.
Subadult female.
Subadult female, abdominal markings.
Subadult female, characteristic pre-epigyne.
Part of prey-catching web drawn from image.
Exuvium.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female with prey.
Genus: Minicia Thorell, 1875
Minicia candida Denis, 1946
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Ukraine? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Minicia candida obscurior Denis, 1963
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Minicia caspiana Tanasevitch, 1990
Range: Russia (Southern European), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Minicia elegans Simon, 1894
Range: Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Minicia floresensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Minicia gomerae (Schmidt, 1975)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Minicia grancanariensis Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Minicia marginella (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Canary Islands), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Minicia teneriffensis Wunderlich, 1979
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female (id?).
Female (id?).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Minyriolus Simon, 1884
Minyriolus columbinus (L. Koch, 1869) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Minyriolus medusa (Simon, 1881)
Range: Austria, Croatia, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Minyriolus phaulobius (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Minyriolus pusillus (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Mioxena Simon, 1926
Mioxena blanda (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Moebelia Dahl, 1886
Moebelia berolinensis (Wunderlich, 1969)
Range: Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Moebelia penicillata (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Monocephalus Smith, 1906
Biology: The species are identifiable by the heads, palps and epigynes but in most cases a stereomicroscope is needed.
Characters of genus: Male head elevated and depressed at sides. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. Tibiae I-IV with one spine but tibia I-II spineless in males.
Monocephalus castaneipes (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Monocephalus fuscipes (Blackwall, 1836)
Description: Carapace is brown (Locket & Millidge 1953). Male head elevated, deeply depressed at sides. Abdomen grey to black. Sternum orange-brown, darker at sides and with reticulations. Legs brown to orange brown. Tm I 0.59-0.66 (Roberts 1987). Size: Female 1.7-2.1 mm; male 1.7-2.0 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Faroe Islands, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female, venter.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Mughiphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 1999
Biology: A group of former Lepthyphantes species now reclassified to the new Mughiphantes genus (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1999).
Characters of genus: Medium sized spiders ranging from 1.6-2.8 mm (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1999). In some species the abdomen has a striking pattern. Tibiae usually with one or more ventral spines. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. Female epigyne disc or pear shaped, often thickened with an almost rigid scape. The male palp shows some adaptations to the rigid scape of the epigyne but these are not visible with a lens.
Mughiphantes arlaudi (Denis, 1954)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes armatus (Kulczynski, 1905)
Range: Austria, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes baebleri (Lessert, 1910)
Range: Austria, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes brunneri (Thaler, 1984)
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes carnicus (van Helsdingen, 1982)
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes cornutus (Schenkel, 1927)
Range: Austria, Finland, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes hadzii (Miller & Polenec, 1975)
Range: Slovenia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Slovenia (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes handschini (Schenkel, 1919)
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes ignavus (Simon, 1884)
Range: Andorra, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes johannislupi (Denis, 1953)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes jugorum (Denis, 1954)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes lithoclasicola (Deltshev, 1983)
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes merretti (Millidge, 1975)
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes mughi (Fickert, 1875)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Mughiphantes omega (Denis, 1952)
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes pulcher (Kulczynski, 1881)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia?, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Mughiphantes pulcheroides (Wunderlich, 1985)
Range: Italy (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes pyrenaeus (Denis, 1953)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes rupium (Thaler, 1984)
Range: Austria, Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes severus (Thaler, 1990)
Range: Austria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes sobrius (Thorell, 1871)
Range: Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Russia (Novaya Zemlya) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Norway, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes styriacus (Thaler, 1984)
Range: Austria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes suffusus (Strand, 1901)
Range: Finland, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Scandinavia, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes triglavensis (Miller & Polenec, 1975)
Range: Austria, Italy (Mainland), Slovenia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria, Slovenia (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes variabilis (Kulczynski, 1887)
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes varians (Kulczynski, 1882)
Range: Poland, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Mughiphantes whymperi (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1894)
Description: Carapace yellow brown (Locket & Millidge 1953). Head with some fairly strong forward directed spines, more pronounced in males. Legs yellow brown. Metatarsi with several spines. Tibial spines long, almost four times diameter of tibia. Abdomen grey with unclear darker pattern. Size: Female 2.6-3.2 mm; male 2.5-3.2 mm. Range: Faroe Islands, Finland, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Ireland, Britain, Finland, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Mycula Schikora, 1994
Mycula mossakowskii Schikora, 1994
Range: Austria, Germany, Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Austria, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Nematogmus Simon, 1884
Nematogmus sanguinolentus (Walckenaer, 1842)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Neriene Blackwall, 1833
Neriene avida Blackwall, 1844 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Neriene carinata Blackwall, 1864 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Neriene clathrata (Sundevall, 1830)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, venter.
Female, stridulation ridges on chelicers.
Female, tibia IV.
Female, feeding.
Female.
Palp.
Male.
Neriene emphana (Walckenaer, 1842)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Neriene furtiva (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Andorra, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa, Russia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Neriene furva Blackwall, 1836 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Neriene hammeni (van Helsdingen, 1963)
Range: Belgium, Germany, Netherlands (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Neriene montana (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult female.
Male.
Female.
Neriene pallidula Blackwall, 1864 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Neriene peltata (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Greenland, Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Neriene pulla Blackwall, 1841 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Neriene radiata (Walckenaer, 1842) - Filmy dome spider
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Neriene sulcata Blackwall, 1844 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Nothophantes Merrett & Stevens, 1995
Nothophantes horridus Merrett & Stevens, 1995
Range: Great Britain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Notioscopus Simon, 1884
Notioscopus sarcinatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, fangs buried in Sphagnum - in order to provide drinking water?.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Nusoncus Wunderlich, 2008
Nusoncus nasutus Schenkel, 1925
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Obscuriphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 2000
Obscuriphantes obscurus (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Obscuriphantes obscurus dilutior (Simon, 1929)
Range: France (Mainland), Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Oedothorax Bertkau, in Förster & Bertkau, 1883
Oedothorax agrestis (Blackwall, 1853)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Oedothorax agrestis longipes (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Oedothorax apicatus (Blackwall, 1850)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Oedothorax curtipes (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Oedothorax fuscus (Blackwall, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa, Azores, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male with parasitic mites.
Male with gravid parasitic mite.
Male with mite taking a stroll up the spiders femur.
Oedothorax gibbifer (Kulczynski, 1882)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Oedothorax gibbosus (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male (forma tuberosus).
Male (forma tuberosus).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Oedothorax insignis (Bösenberg, 1902)
Range: Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Oedothorax montanus (Blackwall, 1856) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Oedothorax pallidus (Bösenberg, 1902)
Range: Germany, Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Oedothorax paludigena Simon, 1926
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Oedothorax retusus (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Oedothorax subniger (Bösenberg, 1902)
Range: Germany, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Balkans (Platnick 10.0).
Oedothorax tener (Bösenberg, 1902)
Range: Germany, Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Balkans (Platnick 10.0).
Oedothorax tingitanus (Simon, 1884)
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Oreoneta Chyzer & Kulczynski, 1894
Characters of genus: The genus has been revised by Saaristo & Marusik (2003). It is defined by the structure of the copulatory organs, particularly by the shape of the male embolic membrane (Saaristo & Marusik 2003). Medium sized linyphiids ranging from 2.5-4.75 mm. Most species are dark, cephalothorax and legs brown with greenish grey-greenish black abdomen. The male carapace is somewhat elevated at front while the female carapace is unmodified.
Oreoneta fennica Saaristo & Marusik, 2004
Range: Finland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Finland (Platnick 10.0).
Oreoneta frigida (Thorell, 1872)
Description: Carapace orange to brown, slightly domed behind eyes (Locket & Millidge 1953). Sternum orange brown. Colour of abdomen vary from yellow-brown, brown, grey to black, perhaps generally darker in males. Legs orange brown to brown, Tm I ca. 0.6-0.7. The male palp has a large tibial apophysis and the female epigyne is much wider than long. Size: Female 3-4 mm; male 2.8-3.3 mm. Range: Faroe Islands, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Ireland, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Poland, Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Greenland to Norway (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Oreoneta leviceps (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Alaska, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Oreoneta montigena (L. Koch, 1872)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland to Slovakia (Platnick 10.0).
Oreoneta punctata (Tullgren, 1955)
Range: Finland, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden, Finland, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Oreoneta sinuosa (Tullgren, 1955)
Range: Finland, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden, Finland (Platnick 10.0).
Oreoneta tatrica (Kulczynski, 1915)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Oreoneta uralensis Saaristo & Marusik, 2004
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Oreonetides Strand, 1901
Biology: The delimitation of this genus has been subject to some confusion and disagreement (Saaristo 1972, van Helsdingen 1981).
Oreonetides glacialis (L. Koch, 1872)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Oreonetides quadridentatus (Wunderlich, 1972)
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Oreonetides vaginatus (Thorell, 1872)
Description: Carapace brown with some thin forward directed hairs in head region. Legs coloured as carapace. Tm I ca. 0.4 (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen light yellowish- to orange-brown or -grey. Sparsely clothed with fairly long, dark hairs. Size: Female 3.0-3.8 mm; male 3.0-3.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, characteristic epigyne.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Oryphantes Hull, 1932
Oryphantes angulatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1881)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Oryphantes geminus (Tanasevitch, 1982)
Range: Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Ostearius (Hull, 1911)
Characters of genus: All tibia with two dorsal spines but no lateral spines. Metatarsus IV about twice as long as tarsus IV. Male palp with tibial apophysis.
Ostearius melanopygius (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879) - Midget spider
Description: The carapace is dark brown to black not elevated in males. Legs are reddish brown and fairly long. Femur I is shorter than the carapace. Metatarsus IV is about twice as long as tarsus IV, but the metatarsi are shorter than the tibiae. The clypeus is slightly concave. The male chelicerae is provided with a strong pointed conical tubercle with a bristle at its tip. The chelicerae is thickened at the base and provided with conspicuous stridulating striae on the lateral sides. The tibial apophysis is bidentate and the epigyne lacks a free scape. The abdomen is reddish with a black area around the spinners. Size: Female 2.0-2.6 mm; male 2.0-2.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands (introduced), Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Characteristic black spot at rear.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Ouedia Bosmans & Abrous, 1992
Ouedia rufithorax (Simon, 1881)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Corsica, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Palliduphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 2001
Biology: Pale coloured spiders, mostly more or less cavernicolous in lifestyle. The genus incorporates a group of former Lepthyphantes species now reclassified to the new Palliduphantes genus based on synapomorphies of the secondary genital organs (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 2001). The males of the species share some special characters including similar shaped paracymbia which are large and tub-like. Also the lamella of the palps and the epigynes share similarities, the epigynes having a very characteristic appearance in dorsal view (see Saaristo & Tanasevitch 2001 for more details on diagnostic characters). The genus is subdivided in to eight species groups bases on the morphology of the secondary genital organs (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 2001)
Characters of genus: Small to medium sized linyphiids having body lengths ranging from 1.30-2.95 mm, but species larger than 2.5 mm are few (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 2001). Pale coloured spiders, the cephalothorax and appendages range in colour from pale yellow to pale orange and the unicoloured abdomen from pale yellow to grey or greyish brown, sometimes with a greenish tinge or a faint pattern of transverse stripes or chevrons. Legs with few spines. Metatarsus IV is without a trichobotrium.
Palliduphantes alutacius (Simon, 1884)
Range: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes angustiformis (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Corsica), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica, Sardinia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Palliduphantes antroniensis (Schenkel, 1933)
Range: Austria, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes arenicola (Denis, 1964)
Range: France (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Palliduphantes berlandi (Fage, 1931)
Range: Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes bidentatus Hormiga & Ribera, 1990
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: (not listed in Platnick) (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes bolivari (Fage, 1931)
Range: Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, Gibraltar (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes brignolii (Kratochvíl, 1978)
Range: Croatia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Croatia (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes byzantinus (Fage, 1931)
Range: Bulgaria, Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Macedonia, Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes cadiziensis (Wunderlich, 1980)
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, Gibraltar, Morocco (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes carusoi (Brignoli, 1979)
Range: Italy (Sicily) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sicily (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes cebennicus (Simon, 1929)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes ceretanus (Denis, 1962)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes cernuus (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes conradini (Brignoli, 1971)
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes cortesi Ribera & De Mas, 2003
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes culicinus (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Slovenia?, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes dentatidens (Simon, 1929)
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes epaminondae (Brignoli, 1979)
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes ericaeus (Blackwall, 1853)
Description: Carapace, legs and abdomen yellow-brown. Tm I ca. 0.15-0.19 (Roberts 1987). Tibial spines very long, metatarsi IV spineless. Venter of abdomen often more greyish-brown. According to Locket & Millidge (1953) the abdomen is grey to black but I am not sure if I have seen blackish specimens. The epigyne is clearly projecting which is best seen in lateral view. Size: Female 1.4-1.9 mm; male 1.3-1.6 mm. Range: Belgium, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Central European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Palliduphantes fagicola (Simon, 1929)
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes florentinus (Caporiacco, 1947)
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes gypsi Ribera & De Mas, 2003
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes insignis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1913)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes istrianus (Kulczynski, 1914)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Romania, Slovenia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes khobarum (Charitonov, 1947)
Range: Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes liguricus (Simon, 1929)
Range: France (Mainland), Hungary?, Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes longiscapus (Wunderlich, 1987)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female. Note stongly projecting epigyne..
Female.
Palliduphantes longiseta (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Corsica), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica, Elba (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female, note projecting epigyne.
Palliduphantes lorifer (Simon, 1907)
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes malickyi (Wunderlich, 1980)
Range: Greece (Crete) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes margaritae (Denis, 1934)
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes melitensis (Bosmans, 1994)
Range: Malta (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Malta (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes milleri (Starega, 1972)
Range: Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Poland, Slovakia, Romania, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes minimus (Deeleman-Reinhold, 1985)
Range: Cyprus, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cyprus (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes montanus (Kulczynski, 1898)
Range: Austria, Germany, Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Austria, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes oredonensis (Denis, 1950)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes pallidus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Palliduphantes palmensis (Wunderlich, 1992)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes pillichi (Kulczynski, 1915)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes rubens (Wunderlich, 1987)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes salfii (Dresco, 1949)
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes sanctivincenti (Simon, 1872)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes schmitzi (Kulczynski, 1899)
Range: Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes spelaeorum (Kulczynski, 1914)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (Mainland), Macedonia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Balkans, Bulgaria, Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes stygius (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France, Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes tenerifensis (Wunderlich, 1992)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Palliduphantes trnovensis (Drensky, 1931)
Range: Bulgaria, Macedonia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Serbia, Macedonia, Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Panamomops Simon, 1884
Panamomops affinis Miller & Kratochvíl, 1939
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Slovakia, Slovenia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Austria, Czech Rep, Slovakia (Platnick 10.0).
Panamomops dybowskii (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)
Range: Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Panamomops fagei Miller & Kratochvíl, 1939
Range: Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Panamomops fedotovi (Charitonov, 1937)
Range: Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia (Platnick 10.0).
Panamomops inconspicuus (Miller & Valesova, 1964)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Panamomops latifrons Miller, 1959
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Czech Rep, Slovakia, Austria, Balkans (Platnick 10.0).
Panamomops mengei Simon, 1926
Range: Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Panamomops mutilus (Denis, 1962)
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France (Platnick 10.0).
Panamomops palmgreni Thaler, 1973
Range: Austria, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Slovakia (Platnick 10.0).
Panamomops similis Schenkel, 1950 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Panamomops strandi Kolosvry, 1934
Range: Hungary, Slovakia? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary (Platnick 10.0).
Panamomops sulcifrons (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Netherlands, Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Panamomops tauricornis (Simon, 1881)
Range: Austria, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Paraglyphesis Eskov, 1991
Paraglyphesis polaris Eskov, 1991
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Parapelecopsis Wunderlich, 1992
Parapelecopsis mediocris (Kulczynski, 1899)
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Spain (Mainland), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Parapelecopsis nemoralioides (O. P.-Cambridge, 1884)
Range: Belgium, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Netherlands, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira)? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Parapelecopsis nemoralis (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Pelecopsis Simon, 1864
Pelecopsis affinis (Simon, in Bösenberg, 1902) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis agaetensis Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis alpica Thaler, 1991
Range: Austria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis bicornuta Hillyard, 1980
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, Morocco (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis bucephala (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Pelecopsis capitata (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis coccinea (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, Morocco (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis denisi Brignoli, 1983
Range: Andorra, France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Andorra, France (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis elongata (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Pelecopsis eminula (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis inedita (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Italy (Mainland), Malta, Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis krausi Wunderlich, 1980
Range: Bulgaria, Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Balkans to Armenia (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis laptevi Tanasevitch & Fet, 1986
Range: Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Iran, Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis lichenorum (Hull, 1931) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis litoralis Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis loksai Szinetr & Samu, 2003
Range: Hungary (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis margaretae Georgescu, 1975
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis mengei (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis modica Hillyard, 1980
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, Morocco (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis moebi (Dahl, 1883 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis mutica Denis, 1957
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis odontophora (Kulczynski, 1895)
Range: Russia (Southern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Georgia (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis palmgreni Marusik & Esyunin, 1998
Global range: Russia, Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis parallela (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Pelecopsis partita Denis, 1953
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis pooti Bosmans & Jocqu, 1993
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis radicicola (L. Koch, 1872)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis robusta Weiss, 1990
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis steppensis Gnelitsa, 2008
Range: Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis straminea (Menge, 1868) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis susannae (Simon, 1914)
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis tenera (Schenkel, 1927) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Pelecopsis turgida (Blackwall, 1841) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Peponocranium Simon, 1884
Peponocranium ludicrum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1861)
Range: Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Peponocranium orbiculatum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1882)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany to Russia, Georgia (Platnick 10.0).
Peponocranium praeceps Miller, 1943
Range: Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Finland, Germany, to Russia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Peponocranium simile Tullgren, 1955
Range: Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Perregrinus Tanasevitch, 1992
Perregrinus deformis (Tanasevitch, 1982)
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Mongolia, China, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Piniphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 1996
Piniphantes cirratus (Thaler, 1986)
Range: France (Corsica) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Piniphantes pinicola (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Pityohyphantes Simon, 1929
Pityohyphantes palilis (L. Koch, 1870)
Range: France (Mainland), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central, Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Pityohyphantes phrygianus (C. L. Koch, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female guarding eggsack.
Female.
Genus: Plaesianillus Simon, 1926
Plaesianillus cyclops (Simon, 1881)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Pocadicnemis Simon, 1884
Pocadicnemis americana Millidge, 1976
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: USA, Canada, Greenland (Platnick 10.0).
Pocadicnemis carpatica (Chyzer, 1894)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central, Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Pocadicnemis jacksoni Millidge, 1976
Range: Andorra, France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France, China (Platnick 10.0).
Pocadicnemis juncea Locket & Millidge, 1953
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Pocadicnemis pumila (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Poeciloneta Kulczynski, 1894
Biology: The single European species of this genus has a characteristic pattern on the abdomen. However, due to the small size of the species it is only identifiable with a lens.
Characters of genus: Clypeus narrow about equal to the diameter of one anterior lateral eye (Locket & Millidge 1953). Male fangs are strong and relatively longer than in females. Outer margin of chelicerae with four large teeth (only visible in a stereomicroscope). Legs rather long. Femur I with a prolateral spine, tibiae with two dorsal spines but no lateral spines. Metatarsi without spines; metatarsus IV with a trichobothrium.
Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841)
Description: Carapace yellow-brown with dark margins, striae, fovea and thin, dark lines extending back from the posterior lateral eyes to a dark rectangular field behind the head. Eyes on black spots. Sternum yellow-brown, often with dark margins. Legs coloured as carapace with more or less pronounced blackish annulations. Tm I ca. 0.71-0.8 (Roberts 1987). Abdomen brown or brownish grey with white reticulations and black transverse markings with a characteristic wavy (anchor shaped?) pattern. Size: Female 1.8-2.5 mm; male 1.8-2.4 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Egg cocoon.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Porrhomma Simon, 1884
Biology: A fairly homogenous group of small spiders which are difficult to identify due to similarity of species and rather great intraspecific variation. Some species are adapted morphologically to troglodytic or subterranean lifestyle, e.g. with eyes distinctly reduced or with paler pigmentation. Depending on habitat, troglodytic species exhibit a great degree of plasticity in morphological adaptations (even leg spination varies) which further complicates identification. The species of Porrhomma are mainly found in the temperate zone of the northern Hemisphere, with most species in the Palaearctic region.
Characters of genus: There is no recent revision of the genus available. The description here is based on Locket & Millidge (1953), and Borges & Wunderlich (2008). Ocular area with some forward projecting hairs, most pronounced in males. Eyes are variable in size, in some species minute or absent. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. The species differ in leg spination, a character that is useful for grouping the species aiding identification. Male palp with no tibial apophysis. Some species possess stridulating files on coxa I while these are reduced or absent in others. The latter case is considered a derived (apomorphic) character of the genus. Tm I of British species range between 0.3-0.64 (Roberts 1987).
Porrhomma boreale (Banks, 1899)
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Alaska (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma borgesi Wunderlich, 2008
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Palp and epigyne.
Porrhomma calypso (Bertkau, in Förster & Bertkau, 1883) (Nomen dubium)
Range: Slovenia, Ukraine? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma cambridgei Merrett, 1994
Range: Czech Republic, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma campbelli F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1894
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma convexum (Westring, 1851)
Description: A fairly large Porrhomma species. Carapace yellow-brown to blackish brown. Ocular area with forward projecting hairs. Abdomen greyish black. Legs yellow-brown. Femur I with one or two dorsal spines and without prolateral spine. All metatarsi spineless. Tm I 0.4-0.49 (Roberts 1987). Size: 2.2-3.0 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Porrhomma corsicum Simon, 1910
Range: France (Corsica) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma egeria Simon, 1884
Description: A medium-sized Porrhomma species. Carapace yellow-brown. Ocular area with forward projecting hairs. Eyes are greatly reduced in size in or even absent. Gradual eye reduction has been observed in this species which is dependent on distance to cave entrance (Sanocka (1982), cited in Harvey et al. (2002)). Abdomen white to greyish yellow. Legs yellow-brown? Femur I with one or two dorsal spines and two prolateral spines. All metatarsi spineless. Tm I 0.36-0.43 (Roberts 1987). Size: Female 2.3-2.5 mm; male 2.0-2.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands?, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma errans (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary?, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma fonsfrigidum Drensky, 1929 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Balkans (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma inconspicuum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma jacksoni Simon, 1926 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma lativelum Tretzel, 1956
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma microcavense Wunderlich, 1990
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Belgium, Germany, Austria, Czech Rep (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma microphthalmum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Porrhomma microps (Roewer, 1931)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma montanum Jackson, 1913
Description: Variable in colouration. Carapace yellow-brown to greyish-brown. Ocular area with fairly long forward projecting hairs. Abdomen pale yellow to greyish black. Legs pale yellow to brown. Femora I without dorsal spines but with one prolateral spine. All metatarsi spineless. Tm I 0.3-0.4 (Roberts 1987). Size: Female 1.5-2.2 mm; male 1.5-2.0 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Porrhomma myops Simon, 1884
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma oblitum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Britain, Iceland, France, central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma omissum Miller, 1971
Range: Czech Republic, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Czech Rep, Slovakia (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma pallidum Jackson, 1913
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma pallidum affinis Miller & Kratochvíl, 1940
Range: Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Slovakia (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma profundum Dahl, 1939
Range: Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma pygmaeum (Blackwall, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Porrhomma rasum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Czech Rep. (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma rosenhaueri (L. Koch, 1872)
Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary?, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Poland, Russia (Central European), Slovenia, Spain (Mainland)?, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma rufipes (Blackwall, 1833) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma spipolae Caporiacco, 1949
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Porrhomma umbraticum (L. Koch, 1881) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Praestigia Millidge, 1954
Praestigia duffeyi Millidge, 1954
Range: Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Netherlands (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female (arrow in inset points to small projection on head which allows identification in the field using a 20 x lens).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Praestigia groenlandica (Holm, 1967)
Range: Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Canada, Greenland (Platnick 10.0).
Praestigia kulczynskii Eskov, 1979
Range: Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Japan, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Praestigia pini (Holm, 1950)
Range: Finland, Russia (Eastern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden, Finland, Russia, Mongolia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Prinerigone Millidge, 1988
Prinerigone pigra (Blackwall, 1862)
Range: Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Prinerigone vagans (Audouin, 1826)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Old World (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Pronopius Menge, 1869 (Nomen Dubium)
Pronopius providus Menge, 1869 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Pseudocarorita Wunderlich, 1980
Pseudocarorita thaleri (Saaristo, 1971)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Pseudocyba Tanasevitch, 1984
Pseudocyba miracula Tanasevitch, 1984
Range: Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Pseudomaro Denis, 1966
Pseudomaro aenigmaticus Denis, 1966
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Poland, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Russocampus Tanasevitch, 2004
Russocampus polchaninovae Tanasevitch, 2004
Range: Russia (Central European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Saloca Simon, 1926
Saloca diceros (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Saloca flagellifera (Menge, 1869) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Saloca kulczynskii Miller & Kratochvíl, 1939
Range: Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central, Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Satilatlas Keyserling, 1886
Satilatlas britteni (Jackson, 1913)
Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (NW. European), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Sauron Eskov, 1995
Sauron fissocornis Eskov, 1995
Range: Russia (Central European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Sauron rayi (Simon, 1881)
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Savignia Blackwall, 1833
Characters of genus: The Savignia species group was redefined by Millidge (1977) as the original description by Blackwall (1833) only accommodated one species Savignia frontata which erroneously was grouped with six-eyed spiders. A number of new species have been assigned to this genus in recent years (The World Spider Catalog by Platnick). The genus is closely related to Diplocephalus and other genera with similar structures of genitals and it has been proposed to merge these genera (Millidge 1997). However, Eskov (1988) on the other hand would like to limit Savignia to species with T-shaped embolic division and an embolus which is slightly curved and directed backwards (Bosselaers & Henderickx 2002).
Savignia frontata Blackwall, 1833
Description: Carapace dark brown to black. Female carapace unmodified, male carapace long, raised in to a highly characteristic snout-like projection bearing a tuft of hairs. Anterior medial eyes are situated on the snout. Darker fovea and striae are visible on alcohol preserved specimens. Legs brown. Tm 1 ca. 0.47-0.53 (Roberts 1987). Metatarsus without a trichobothrium. Tibiae I-II with two spines (minute in males), tibiae III-IV with one spine (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen dark grey to black. Size: Female 1.5-2.0 mm; male 1.5-1.9 mm. Range: Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Savignia fronticornis (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Savignia harmsi Wunderlich, 1980
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Savignia naniplopi Bosselaers & Henderickx, 2002
Range: Greece (Crete) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Savignia producta Holm, 1977
Range: Finland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Savignia superstes Thaler, 1984
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Savigniorrhipis Wunderlich, 1992
Savigniorrhipis acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Savigniorrhipis grandis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Scandichrestus Wunderlich, 1995
Scandichrestus tenuis (Holm, 1943)
Range: Estonia, Finland, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden, Finland, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Sciastes Bishop & Crosby, 1938
Sciastes carli (Lessert, 1907)
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Italy, Switzerland, Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Sciastes extremus (Holm, 1967)
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Canada, Greenland (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Scotargus Simon, 1913
Scotargus enghoffi Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Scotargus grancanariensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Scotargus pilosus Simon, 1913
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Scotargus secundus Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Scotargus tenerifensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Scotinotylus Simon, 1884
Biology: The members of this genus is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere with many species endemic to North America (Millidge 1981). Generally, the species are associated with the cool climates of high latitudes. Further to the south the species are confined to high altitudes such as those of central European mountain ranges. Little is known about their biology. They have been found at ground level under stones. Several species have been found at the snow line.
Characters of genus: Species rich genus consisting of small species ranging from 1.2 to 3.0 mm (Millidge1981). Male head domed behind posterior eyes, in some species only slightly while in others formed in to a large lobe. Dome or lobe are furnished with some short, fine hairs on anterior or frontal parts, including ocular area. Sulci and pits may be present in those species having a definite lobe. Eyes are widely spaced and fairly small in some species, perhaps most pronounced in males. The female carapace is only slightly elevated behind the eyes and carries no other modifications. Chelicerae with stridulating files in both sexes and in all species (Millidge 1981). Abdomen without a scutum and practically unicolourous. Legs are relatively short and tend to appear stout in smaller species. Tibia and metatarsus I dorsally with dense short hairs in both sexes. In males of some species these hairs are curved (requires a stereomicroscope to be visible). Metatarsi I-III with a dorsal trichobothrium, metatarsus IV withou a trichobothrium. Tm I range between 0.35 and 0.7, but the value is less than 0.55 in most species (Millidge 1981). Male palpal tibia is elongated and swollen in some species. The palpal tibia may bear one or more thickened spines dorsally. Tibial apophysis usually short, often with a short tooth distallly. In species with a longer apophysis this terminates in a hook. As most linyphiid genera, Scotinotylus is defined more unambiguously by the structure of the genitals (see Millidge 1977, 1981 for details).
Scotinotylus alpigena (L. Koch, 1869)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Finland, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Scotinotylus alpinus (Banks, 1896)
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Russia, Mongolia, Alaska, Canada, USA, Greenland (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.