- only species with images listed
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Linyphiidae (Line Weaving Spiders)
Biology: The Linyphiidae is the worlds second largest spider family encompassing ca. 4320 species in more than 570 genera. The highest diversity is found in the northern temperate regions. In these regions as well as in the arctic regions spiders of this family dominates the spider fauna. The jumping spiders (Salticidae) is an even larger family but they generally require warmer conditions than the linyphiids and for this reason they are less well represented in the cooler regions. Linyphiids are found worldwide in all terrestrial biotopes and is perhaps the most widely distributed spider family. They range in size from very small to medium (1-8.5 mm body size). Most species are found at ground level but they occupy a very wide array of habitats. The members of the family build a sheet web sometimes dome shaped. The web has no retreat and the spider always hang inverted below the sheet. Larger species in particular sometimes add irregular vertical snares acting both as sheet suspension strands and barrage balloon wires impeding the flight of insects. When insects strike the vertical snares they fall down on the sheet and the spider rush to bite the prey through the sheet web. Many species disperse by air and the phenomenon of ballooning is very noticeable in this family when very dense populations try to balloon at the same time. The spiders climb up high in the vegetation and point the spinners toward the sky. In this position they let out some strands of silk and eventually the wind will lift the spiders up in the air. Often they only manage to fly a short distance but they will keep trying sometimes resulting in a layer of shimmering silk covering the vegetation. Ballooning takes place usually in late summer. Ballooning may result in spiders literally raining from the sky. Erigone atra is a very common aeronaut in late summer in some areas and on several occasions I have experienced specimens landing in my hair at short intervals, for example while I was sitting in my garden.
Characters of family: The linyphiids belong to the group of ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. The eyes are arranged in 2 rows of 4, usually heterogeneous in size with the anterior medials smaller than the rest. Frequently, the eyes are ringed with black, this being most noticeable in species with lighter coloured carapaces such as many species of the Linyphiinae subfamily. Some species adapted to dark habitats have the eyes much reduced, sometimes being very minute in size or only evidenced by pale markings under the integument (e.g. Porrhomma rosenhauri). The carapace is highly variable especially in the smaller species belonging to the Erigoninae subfamily. Males of this large subfamily frequently have the frontal region modified into strangely formed lobes or bear other types of protuberances some of which may have tufts of hairs. Some species have the carapace punctured with pits (see images of Lophomma punctatum). The males may also have sulci (grooves) running backwards from the posterior eyes. The chelicerae do not possess a lateral condyle (boss at base of chelicer). The outer side of the chelicerae have horizontal stridulating ridges visible in many species. Such ridges only occur scattered in other spider families (see for example images of ridges in Metellina stridulans of the Tetragnathidae). The labium is strongly rebordered as in the Nesticidae, Araneidae, and Tetragnathidae. The endites are usually parallel. Legs are slender and provided with spines. The number of spines on the legs is an important character for species identification when this is undertaken using the stereomicroscope. The abdomen is nearly always longer than wide sometimes with a pattern (Linyphiinae in particular) and sometimes mainly uniformly coloured, very often blackish (Erigoninae in particular). Some species posses an abdominal scutum as for example some members of the Ceratinella genus. The epigynes are variable, sometimes simple as in the Erigoninae or provided with a scapus as often seen in the Linyphiinae. The male palp often possesses an U-shaped paracymbium. The family was earlier divided in to two subfamilies, which sometimes were elevated to family status: the Linyphiidae and Erigonidae (also known as Micryphantidae). The Linyphiidae was characterized by not having tibial apophyses on the male palp, by having a claw on the female palp in most species, and by having two dorsal spines on tibia IV or if only one spine present there was one short spine on metatarsi I and II. The Erigonidae was characterized by having at least one tibial apophyses on the male palp, by lacking a claw on the female palp, and by having just a single dorsal spine on tibia IV and with the metatarsi spineless, or all spines lacking altogether. However, the family is now divided in to seven subfamilies, the Dubiaraneinae, Erigoninae, Ipainae, Linyphiinae, Micronetinae, Mynogleninae, and Stemonyphantinae. Consult recent literature or Wikipedia for lists of subfamily genera. See also Linyphiid Spiders Of The World by Andrei Tanasevitch and LinyGen: Linyphioid Genera of the World (Pimoidae and Linyphiidae) by Gustavo Hormiga, Dimitar Dimitrov, Jeremy A. Miller and Fernando Alvarez-Padilla.
This family is represented in Europe with 1368 species in 218 genera (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009). European genera (number of species in parenthesis): Abacoproeces (2), Abiskoa (1), Acartauchenius (6), Acorigone (2), Agnyphantes (1), Agyneta (15), Alioranus (2), Allomengea (3), Anguliphantes (4), Antrohyphantes (3), Aphileta (1), Araeoncus (17), Archaraeoncus (1), Arcterigone (1), Asthenargus (7), Baryphyma (8), Bathyphantes (17), Birgerius (1), Bolephthyphantes (1), Bolyphantes (9), Bordea (2), Canariellanum (4), Canariphantes (3), Caracladus (3), Carorita (2), Caviphantes (2), Centromerita (2), Centromerus (65), Centrophantes (2), Ceraticelus (1), Ceratinella (10), Ceratinopsis (2), Cineta (1), Cinetata (1), Cnephalocotes (2), Collinsia (10), Cresmatoneta (2), Crosbyarachne (1), Dactylopisthes (3), Decipiphantes (1), Diastanillus (1), Dicymbium (3), Didectoprocnemis (1), Diplocentria (5), Diplocephalus (37), Diplostyla (1), Dismodicus (4), Donacochara (1), Drapetisca (1), Drepanotylus (3), Dresconella (1), Entelecara (22), Erigone (41), Erigonella (4), Erigonoplus (15), Estrandia (1), Evansia (1), Fageiella (2), Flagelliphantes (1), Floronia (1), Formiphantes (2), Frontinellina (2), Frontiphantes (1), Glyphesis (4), Gnathonarium (1), Gonatium (14), Gongylidiellum (8), Gongylidium (3), Halorates (1), Helophora (1), Heterotrichoncus (1), Hilaira (11), Horcotes (1), Hybauchenidium (3), Hybocoptus (2), Hylyphanthes (2), Hypomma (5), Hypselistes (3), Hypsocephalus (5), Iberoneta (1), Icariella (1), Improphantes (8), Incestophantes (8), Ipa (3), Islandiana (2), Jacksonella (1), Janetschekia (1), Kaestneria (3), Karita (1), Kikimora (1), Kratochviliella (1), Labulla (3), Lasiargus (1), Lepthyphantes (61), Leptorhoptrum (1), Leptothrix (1), Lessertia (2), Lessertinella (2), Linyphia (22), Lophomma (1), Macrargus (6), Maculoncus (1), Mansuphantes (10), Maro (5), Masikia (1), Maso (2), Mecopisthes (11), Mecynargus (10), Megalepthyphantes (4), Meioneta (30), Mermessus (5), Mesasigone (1), Metapanamomops (1), Metopobactrus (12), Micrargus (11), Microctenonyx (2), Microlinyphia (4), Microneta (4), Micryphantes (23), Midia (1), Minicia (9), Minyriolus (4), Mioxena (1), Moebelia (2), Monocephalus (2), Mughiphantes (27), Mycula (1), Nematogmus (1), Neriene (13), Nothophantes (1), Notioscopus (1), Nusoncus (1), Obscuriphantes (2), Oedothorax (15), Oreoneta (8), Oreonetides (3), Oryphantes (2), Ostearius (1), Ouedia (1), Palliduphantes (48), Panamomops (13), Paraglyphesis (1), Parapelecopsis (3), Pelecopsis (33), Peponocranium (4), Perregrinus (1), Piniphantes (2), Pityohyphantes (2), Plaesianillus (1), Pocadicnemis (6), Poeciloneta (1), Porrhomma (29), Praestigia (3), Prinerigone (2), Pronopius (1), Pseudocarorita (1), Pseudocyba (1), Pseudomaro (1), Russocampus (1), Saloca (3), Satilatlas (1), Sauron (2), Savignia (6), Savigniorrhipis (2), Scandichrestus (1), Sciastes (2), Scotargus (5), Scotinotylus (9), Semljicola (11), Sibirocyba (1), Silometopoides (1), Silometopus (14), Sintula (9), Sisicus (1), Stemonyphantes (3), Styloctetor (3), Syedra (6), Saaristoa (2), Tallusia (3), Tanasevitchia (1), Tapinocyba (22), Tapinocyboides (1), Tapinopa (2), Taranucnus (2), Tarsiphantes (1), Tenuiphantes (23), Thaleria (1), Thaumatoncus (1), Theonina (2), Thyreosthenius (2), Tibiaster (1), Tibioploides (1), Tibioplus (1), Tiso (3), Tmeticus (2), Trematocephalus (2), Trichoncoides (2), Trichoncus (18), Trichoncyboides (1), Trichopterna (4), Trichopternoides (1), Troglohyphantes (119), Troxochrota (1), Troxochrus (4), Tubercithorax (1), Turinyphia (3), Typhlonyphia (2), Typhochrestus (21), Uralophantes (1), Victorium (1), Wabasso (2), Walckenaeria (72), Walckenaerianus (1), Wiehlea (1), Wiehlenarius (1), Wubanoides (2), Zornella (1).
Genus: Acartauchenius Simon, 1884
There are 6 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Acartauchenius depressifrons, A. derisor, A. minor, A. nasutus, A. sardiniensis, A. scurrilis.
Acartauchenius scurrilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Eggsack placed in cavity on underside of stone.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Eggsack visible behind curtain of silk. It contained only four eggs which were relatively large compared to the spider.
Habitat.
Female.
Genus: Acorigone Wunderlich, 2008
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Acorigone acoreensis, A. zebraneus.
Acorigone acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992)
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Acorigone zebraneus Wunderlich, 2008
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Genus: Agyneta Hull, 1911
Biology: Agyneta share some morphological traits with Meioneta including tracheae extending in to the cephalothorax as well as similar structure of the secondary genital organs. This has resulted in synonymization and transfer of species from Meioneta to Agyneta (see for example Saaristo 1973, Roberts 1987 and Saaristo & Koponen 1998). However, the present view is to consider this incorrect. Millidge (1977) point out that the two genera most likely constitute two phylogenetic lines due to non-overlapping Tm I range, a view that has not yet been proven wrong (The World Spider Catalog by Platnick). There are a few other differences between the genera. Meioneta lacks a trichobothrium on metatarsus IV and possess different cheliceral teeth than Agyneta. Some Meioneta species possess lateral spines on tibia I and II. Members of Agyneta have only dorsal spines on tibia I-II. From a practical point of view, it is convenient to uphold the two genera due to the fairly high number of species, totalling 30 in Europe alone. Species rich genera are unhandy in terms of species identification. Identification of single females in the two genera may be difficult as the members have very similar epigynes, and it is sometimes stated that a female can be identified only from its habitat and association with the male (Saaristo & Koponen 1998). However, some help may be obtained from the degree of swelling and blackening of the female palp which differs among species.
Characters of genus: Posterior eyes of approximately similar size (Locket & Millidge, 1953). Tm I = 0.65-0.9. With a trichobothrium on metatarsus IV. Lateral spines on Tibia I and II absent.
There are 15 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Agyneta allosubtilis, A. arietans, A. breviceps, A. cauta, A. conigera, A. decora, A. olivacea, A. ramosa, A. rugosa, A. subtilis, A. suecica, A. trifurcata.
Agyneta conigera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1863)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, Congo (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Agyneta decora (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Description: Carapace brown. Abdomen grey to black. Legs brown with tibiae and metatarsi darker. Female with strongly swollen palps. Male palp elevated dorsally, appearing subquadratic in lateral view. Size: Female 1.8-2.5 mm; male 1.8-2.0 mm. Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Epigyne.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Agyneta ramosa Jackson, 1912
Description: Carapace brown, rather elongate with eyes situated fairly close together. Legs slender, darker distally. Abdomen coloured as carapace or darker, sometimes grey to greyish black. Female palp not strongly swollen. Male palp elevated dorsally, appearing subquadratic in lateral view. Size: Female 2.0-2.5 mm; male 2.0-2.3 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Agyneta rugosa Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Portugal (Azores), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Genus: Allomengea Strand, 1912
Biology: This genus has been reviewed by van Helsdingen (1974). There are three European species of which A. scopigera and A. vidua have been recorded from much of central and northern Europe, while A. dentisetis is restricted to Russia. At least the European species seem to prefer wetlands with a well developed herbaceous stratum but only sparse covering by trees. Here they are found on plants or under detritus or stones. The species have a late summer to early fall mating period.
Characters of genus: Small to medium-sized spiders with European species ranging from 2.9-5.6 mm in body length (van Helsdingen 1974). Carapace not modified in males. Eyes subequal with anterior medials slightly smaller than the others. Chelicerae with well-developed stridulating ridges. Abdomen with or without a pattern. Legs long and thin. Femora without spines, tibia with several spines including ventral ones, metatarsi I and II with one ventral spine only (occasionally none), metatarsi III and IV with more numerous spines. Tm I 0.65-0.80. Metatarsi IV with a trichobothrium (A. scopigera has several trichobothria in addition to principal one). The males of the genus are easily recognized by the palp, which is armed with a bunch of stout spines arising from the tip of a horn-like projection of the cymbium. Epigyne is formed as a small to large more or less triangular sclerotized projection depending on species.
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Allomengea dentisetis, A. scopigera, A. vidua.
Allomengea scopigera (Grube, 1859) - Greater bristle-palped line weaver
Description: The carapace and legs are orange brown. Eyes of subequal size, the anterior medials close together, the lateral eyes touching. The abdomen is yellow brown to grey, dorsum sometimes with greyish bars. TM I 0.74-0.80 (van Helsdingen 1974). Leg IV longer than leg I in both sexes. Spination of tibiae distinctly different from the other species of the genus (van Helsdingen 1974). In addition to the principal trichobothria there is a series of 2-3 shorter trichobothria on all metatarsi (not present in other species). The male palp is provided with a number of closely grouped stout spines easily visible with a lens. The female epigyne is also characteristic and consists of a large triangular sclerotized projection intermediate in size compared to the smaller one of A. vidua and the larger one of A. dentisetis. Size: Female 4-5.5 mm; male 4-4.5 mm. Range: Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male, note the characteristic brushes on palps.
Allomengea vidua (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Aphileta Hull, 1920
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Aphileta misera.
Aphileta misera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1882)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female with large phoretic mite.
Genus: Araeoncus Simon, 1884
There are 17 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Araeoncus altissimus, A. anguineus, A. caucasicus, A. clivifrons, A. convexus, A. crassiceps, A. curvatus, A. discedens, A. dispar, A. humilis, A. longiusculus, A. sicanus, A. tauricus, A. toubkal, A. tuberculatus, A. vaporariorum, A. vorkutensis.
Araeoncus crassiceps (Westring, 1861)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Araeoncus humilis (Blackwall, 1841)
male 1.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, New Zealand (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Asthenargus Simon & Fage, 1922
There are 7 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Asthenargus bracianus, A. carpaticus, A. helveticus, A. longispinus, A. paganus, A. perforatus, A. placidus.
Asthenargus paganus (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Epigyne.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Baryphyma Simon, 1884
Characters of genus: A group of species with rather similar palpal organs and epigynes. Carapaces of males usually with dome shaped-elevation. The shape of the elevation in lateral view is an important character aiding identification. The shapes of the male palpal tibiae and tibial apophyses are equally important. Male palps are generally relatively large compared to size of prosoma. All species possess rows of stout bristles beneath the anterior femora and tibia (Millidge 1977). Tm I 0.75-0.95, Tm IV present (Roberts 1985). Tibiae I and II with two dorsal spines, tibiae III and IV with one dorsal spine (Millidge 1977).
There are 8 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Baryphyma gowerense, B. insigne, B. maritimum, B. pratense, B. proclive, B. trifrons.
Baryphyma maritimum (Crocker & Parker, 1970)
Range: Belgium, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Netherlands (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Bathyphantes Menge, 1866
Characters of genus: Palp of female with tarsal claw. Legs rather long and slender. All tibiae with two dorsal spines, metatarsi spineless (Locket & Millidge 1953).
There are 17 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Bathyphantes approximatus, B. enslini, B. eumenis, B. gracilis, B. humilis, B. jeniseicus, B. meadei (nomen dubium), B. nigrinus, B. ohlerti, B. parvulus, B. pusiolus, B. reprobus, B. setiger, B. similis, B. simillimus, B. simillimus buchari, B. vittiger.
Bathyphantes approximatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Bathyphantes gracilis (Blackwall, 1841)
Description: Carapace brown to dark brown, not elevated in male. Abdomen variable in colour, sometimes uniform in colour varying from light brown to black. The most common variety has black triangular chevrons on a brown or olive-green background. However abdomens of Faroese specimens inspected so far have been uniformly dark coloured. Legs yellow-brown. Tm IV absent. Position of Tm I 0.25-0.30 (Roberts 1985). Size: Female 2.0-2.5 mm; male 1.5-2.0 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands?, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, dark colourform.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Bathyphantes nigrinus (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Bathyphantes simillimus (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Poland, Russia (Northern European), Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Bolyphantes C. L. Koch, 1837
Characters of genus: Fairly large linyphiidsof the subfamily Micronetinae having body lengths up to 5 mm (Saaristo & Tanasesevitch 2000). In some species the male carapace is elevated in the ocular area which is furnished with numerous forward directed bristles. Carapace only somewhat raised in female. Abdomen with pattern. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. Legs long and slender and well armed with spines. Femora without dorsal spines. Tibiae and metatarsi with numerous spines. Tm I 0.15-0.18 (Saaristo & Tanasesevitch 2000). Abdomen with pattern. Males have a stout spine on the palpal patella.
There are 9 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Bolyphantes alticeps, B. kilpisjaerviensis, B. kolosvaryi, B. lamellaris, B. luteolus, B. nigropictus, B. punctulatus.
Bolyphantes alticeps (Sundevall, 1833)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Bolyphantes luteolus (Blackwall, 1833)
Description: The carapace is brown sometimes with a more or less distinct dark median stripe. In some specimens dark lateral bands are present as well. The female clypeus is distinctly concave. Eyes are ringed with black. The male has the projecting eyeregion being rounded. The male palpal patellar spine is stout with the apical end jagged like a broken stick. Legs are brown with no markings. The abdomen of both sexes are light yellow brown with many small white patches. There is a dark median stripe and some dark blotches at the sides. Size: Female 3.5-4 mm; male 3-3.5 mm. Habitat: Fairly common in moist conditions on bushes and among low vegetation on heaths and in coastal dunes, sometimes also in forests. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, venter.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Canariellanum Wunderlich, 1987
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Canariellanum albidum, C. arborense, C. hierroense, C. palmense.
Canariellanum arborense Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Carorita Duffey & Merrett, 1963
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Carorita limnaea.
Carorita limnaea (Crosby & Bishop, 1927)
Range: Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Centromerita Dahl, 1912
Characters of genus: All tibiae with two dorsal spines, lateral spines and some stout spines ventrally (Locket & Millidge 1953). Metatarsus without a trichobothrium. Femora I and II each with a dorsal and prolateral spine. The male palpal tibia has a bunch of stout serrated bristles.
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Centromerita bicolor, C. concinna.
Centromerita bicolor (Blackwall, 1833)
Description: Carapace and legs unicoloured brown to dark brown. Posterior median eyes one diameter or more apart. Male head with a number of forward directed spines, fewer in females. Abdomen brown to dark brown. If brown then the abdomen has the same colour as the carapace and legs. If dark brown then the abdomen is darker than the carapace and legs. Size: 3.0-3.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Centromerita concinna (Thorell, 1875)
Description: Carapace brown to dark brown sometimes with a dark margin. Posterior median eyes less than one diameter apart. Male head with short spines, almost absent in females. Abdomen brown to dark brown. If brown then the abdomen has the same colour as the carapace and legs. If dark brown then the abdomen is darker than the carapace and legs. Size: Female 2.0-3.0 mm; male 2.0-2.6 mm. Range: Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary?, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Centromerus Dahl, 1886
Characters of genus: Legs fairly short and stout (Locket & Millidge 1953). Metatarsi I and II with a small dorsal spine. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. Tibia I sometimes with a prolateral spine. Tibia IV with one or two dorsal spines. Epigyne with a scape in most species.
There are 65 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Centromerus abditus, C. acutidentatus, C. albidus, C. andrei, C. andriescui, C. anoculus, C. arcanus, C. balazuci, C. bonaeviae, C. brevivulvatus, C. bulgarianus, C. capucinus, C. cavernarum, C. chappuisi, C. cinctus, C. clarus, C. cottarellii, C. crinitus, C. dacicus, C. dilutus, C. europaeus, C. fagicola, C. fuerteventurensis, C. gentilis, C. incilium, C. lakatnikensis, C. leruthi, C. levitarsis, C. ludovici, C. milleri, C. minutissimus, C. obenbergeri, C. obscurus, C. pabulator, C. pallens (nomen dubium), C. paradoxus, C. pasquinii, C. persimilis, C. piccolo, C. prudens, C. prudens electus, C. puddui, C. satyrus, C. sellarius, C. semiater, C. serbicus, C. serratus, C. setosus, C. sexoculatus, C. silvicola, C. sinus, C. subalpinus, C. subcaecus, C. succinus, C. sylvaticus, C. sylvaticus paucidentatus, C. timidus, C. tridentinus, C. unctus, C. valkanovi, C. variegatus, C. viduus.
Centromerus arcanus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)
Description: Carapace pale yellow to brown. Sternum yellow, reticulated faintly with black and sometimes margined with black (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen brown (as carapace and legs) or grey to blackish grey. Legs pale yellow to brown as carapace. Tibia IV with one dorsal spine. Female epigyne with long scapus, about 5 times longer than wide. Size: Female 2.0-2.5 mm; male 1.6-2.4 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female. Note the elongate scapus stretching back from the epigyne.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Centromerus dilutus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Description: A fairly small member of the genus. Carapace yellow brown to brown sometimes with darker striae. Abdomen grey to blackish. Legs yellow to yellow brown often paler than carapace. Leg spines rather short and fine (Locket & Millidge 1953). Tibia IV with one dorsal spine only. The epigynal scape is about 10 times longer than wide and require good light to be viewable using a lens. Size: Female 1.2-1.6 mm; male 1.2-1.5 mm. Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands?, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Latvia, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Centromerus incilium (L. Koch, 1881)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Centromerus levitarsis (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia?, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female, epigyne.
Female.
Female.
Centromerus prudens (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)
Description: Carapace yellow to yellow brown (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen is grey. Legs coloured as carapace with relatively long and stout spines. Epigynal scapus relatively short and wide, about 1.5 longer than wide. Tibia IV with two dorsal spines. Size: 2.3-2.5 mm. Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Central European), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Centromerus sylvaticus (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Ceratinella Emerton, 1882
Characters of genus: Compact dark spiders with coriaceous abdomens (Locket & Millidge 1953). The male carapace is slightly domed in head region. The legs are short and robust with metatarsi equal or slightly longer than tarsi. Tibial spines very short and resemble hairs. The abdomen is globular in females, less so in males. A dorsal scutum is present in many species.
There are 10 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Ceratinella apollonii, C. brevipes, C. brevis, C. major, C. marcui, C. ornatula, C. rotunda, C. rubella (nomen dubium), C. scabrosa, C. wideri.
Ceratinella brevipes (Westring, 1851)
Description: Carapace dark brown to blackish. Legs reddish brown sometimes with segments distal to patella lighter. The abdomen is blackish, coriaceous and without scutum in females. Two pairs of sigilla are present, less distinct in males. The scutum and sigilla are difficult to see on live specimens but usually very distinct on alcohol preserved specimens. Size: Female 1.6-1.8 mm; male 1.3-1.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Ceratinella brevis (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia?, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Cnephalocotes Simon, 1884
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Cnephalocotes obscurus, C. tristis.
Cnephalocotes obscurus (Blackwall, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Collinsia (Thorell 1871)
Characters of genus: Male head not elevated. Metatarsi slightly longer than tarsi. Tibia I-III with two spines, IV with only one (Locket & Millidge 1953).
There are 10 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Collinsia borea, C. caliginosa, C. caliginosa nemenziana, C. despaxi, C. distincta, C. hibernica, C. holmgreni, C. inerrans, C. spetsbergensis, C. thulensis.
Collinsia holmgreni (Thorell, 1871)
Description: Carapace yellow brown to brown. Sternum yellow and suffused and reticulated with black (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen grey to black. Size: Female 2.0-2.5 mm; male 1.9-2.2 mm. Range: Faroe Islands, Finland, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Cresmatoneta Simon, 1929
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Cresmatoneta eleonorae, C. mutinensis.
Cresmatoneta mutinensis (Canestrini, 1868)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Romania, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Dicymbium Menge, 1868
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Dicymbium nigrum, D. nigrum brevisetosum, D. tibiale.
Dicymbium tibiale (Blackwall, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Ireland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male. Note the swollen Tibia I.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male with mite.
Female.
Male with mite.
Female.
Genus: Diplocentria Hull, 1911
Characters of genus: Male head not elevated. Eyes large, all about 0.5 diameter apart (Locket & Millidge 1953). Tibiae I-III with two spines, IV with just one. Metatarsi longer than tarsi (leg I: 1.2 times; leg IV: 1.7 times).
There are 5 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Diplocentria bidentata, D. forsslundi, D. mediocris, D. rectangulata.
Diplocentria bidentata (Emerton, 1882)
Description: Carapace yellow brown. Eyes large and situated fairly close together, all about 0.5 diameter apart (Locket & Millidge 1953). Legs yellow brown to brown, similar coloured as carapace. Abdomen is grey. Size: Female 1.8-2.2 mm; male 1.6-1.9 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female, shape of epigyne in lateral view.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Diplocephalus Bertkau, 1883
Characters of genus: Male head elevated in to a variety of lobes (Locket & Millidge 1953). Tibiae I-II with two spines, III-IV with just one spine (spines sometimes reduced or absent in males). Metatarsi longer than tarsi: leg I: 1.2-1.3 times, leg IV: 1.5-1.6 times (Locket & Millidge 1953).
There are 37 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Diplocephalus alpinus, D. alpinus strandi, D. alpinus subrufus, D. altimontanus, D. arnoi, D. arvernus, D. barbiger, D. bicephalus, D. caecus, D. connatus, D. connatus jacksoni, D. crassilobus, D. cristatus, D. culminicola, D. dentatus, D. fallaciosus (nomen dubium), D. foraminifer, D. foraminifer thyrsiger, D. graecus, D. helleri, D. hungaricus, D. latifrons, D. longicarpus, D. lusiscus, D. pavesii, D. permixtus, D. picinus, D. procer, D. protuberans, D. pseudocrassilobus, D. pullinus, D. rectilobus, D. rostratus, D. semiglobosus, D. subrostratus, D. tiberinus, D. turcicus.
Diplocephalus cristatus (Blackwall, 1833)
Description: Carapace brown to greyish black. Striae not visible in live specimens. Male head elevated anteriorly divided by a transverse groove. Eyes fairly large in female and posterior medials are about 0.7 diameter apart and about 0.5 diameter apart from laterals. Eyes are smaller in males and due to the elevation of the head farther apart (2-3 diameter between posterior medials and laterals). Abdomen is grey to black. Legs are grey (recently moulted specimens?) to reddish brown. Size: Female 1.8-2.5 mm; male 1.7-2.1 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic, New Zealand, Falkland Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Diplocephalus dentatus Tullgren, 1955
Range: Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Northern, Central Europe to Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Diplocephalus latifrons (O. P.-Cambridge, 1863)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Diplocephalus permixtus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Description: Carapace brown to greyish black. Striae not visible in live specimens. Male head elevated anteriorly divided by a transverse groove. Male carapace rather elongate and projecting considerably over chelicerae. In the female posterior medials are about 0.8 diameter apart and about 0.5 diameter apart from laterals. Eyes are smaller in males and due to the elevation of the head farther apart (2.5 diameter between posterior medials and laterals). Abdomen is grey to black. Legs are brown to yellow brown. Tibia I spineless in males. Size: Female 1.6-1.9 mm; male 1.5-1.9 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Iceland, Ireland, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Diplocephalus picinus (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Diplostyla Emerton, 1882
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Diplostyla concolor.
Diplostyla concolor (Wider, 1834)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Madeira), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Dismodicus Simon, 1884
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Dismodicus bifrons, D. decemoculatus, D. elevatus, D. fungiceps.
Dismodicus bifrons (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Dismodicus elevatus (C. L. Koch, 1838)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Donacochara Simon, 1884
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Donacochara speciosa.
Donacochara speciosa (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female after oviposition.
Female before oviposition.
Male.
Male.
Male.
male palp.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Genus: Drapetisca Menge, 1866
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Drapetisca socialis.
Drapetisca socialis (Sundevall, 1833)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Drepanotylus Holm, 1945
Characters of genus: Both sexes domed behind the eyes. All tibiae with two dorsal spines, tibia I with an additional prolateral spine.
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Drepanotylus borealis, D. pirinicus, D. uncatus.
Drepanotylus uncatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)
Description: Carapace brown to dark brown, characteristically shaped with a protruding head having an almost straight anterior edge. The carapace is domed behind the eyes in both sexes which is best observed in lateral view. The carapace is provided with a median row of stout bristles and some hairs in the ocular area. Legs are orange brown. Leg spines weak. The abdomen is yellow brown to black. Male palpal tibia with prominent curved apophysis ending in a hook. Female epigyne heart-shaped but difficult to discern with a lens. Size: Female 2.5-3.2 mm; male 2.5-3.0 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Entelecara Simon, 1884
Characters of genus: Most species are rather similar in general appearance. Males have the head region domed. Female tibiae I-II with two spines, III-IV with just one. In males spines are much reduced, usually absent altogether from tibiae I-II (Locket & Millidge 1953). Metatarsus IV with a trichobothrium in most species. Male palp with two prominent tibial apophyses.
There are 22 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Entelecara acuminata, E. aestiva, E. cacuminum, E. congenera, E. erecta (nomen dubium), E. errata, E. erythropus, E. flavipes, E. forsslundi, E. frontalis (nomen dubium), E. helfridae, E. italica, E. klefbecki, E. media, E. obscura, E. omissa, E. schmitzi, E. strandi, E. truncatifrons, E. turbinata.
Entelecara acuminata (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Entelecara congenera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Entelecara errata O. P.-Cambridge, 1913
Description: Carapace dark brown. Female anterior medial eyes smaller than laterals and posterior medials. Male anterior medials slightly smaller than posterior medials. Male head domed behind anterior medial eyes carrying the posterior medial eyes. A sulcus containing a small pit runs back from each posterior lateral eye. Legs are light brown. Metatarsus IV with a trichobothrium, but often difficult to see. The abdomen is black. Size: Female 1.5-1.9 mm; male 1.5-1.7 mm. Range: Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Entelecara omissa O. P.-Cambridge, 1902
Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Entelecara schmitzi Kulczynski, 1905
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira, France (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Epigyne.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Erigone Audouin, 1826
Characters of genus: Edges of carapace strongly dentate in males, less so in females. Male head domed, but not raised in to a lobe. The chelicers are robust and furnished with warts and teeth anteriorly being more strongly developed in males than in females. Tibiae I-III with two spines, IV with just one. Metatarsi slightly longer than tarsi: leg I: 1.3-1.4 times, leg IV: ca.1.6 times (Locket & Millidge 1953). Male palp with characteristic large ventral patellar apophysis at the distal end. Palpal femur often with ventral knobs and teeth along length.
There are 41 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Erigone aletris, E. arctica, E. arctica maritima, E. arctica palaearctica, E. arctica soerenseni, E. arcticola, E. atra, E. autumnalis, E. brunneonigra (nomen dubium), E. carinata, E. cristatopalpus, E. decens, E. dentigera, E. dentipalpis, E. dumitrescuae, E. fluctuans, E. hypoarctica, E. impudica (nomen dubium), E. jaegeri, E. jugorum, E. kochi (nomen dubium), E. longipalpis, E. longipalpis meridionalis, E. longipalpis pirini, E. marina, E. muscorum, E. nigrimana, E. pallidula, E. promiscua, E. psychrophila, E. quadripunctata (nomen dubium), E. remota, E. remota dentigera, E. simillima, E. spadix, E. strandi, E. svenssoni, E. tenuimana, E. tirolensis, E. welchi, E. whymperi.
Erigone arctica (White, 1852)
Description: Carapace dark brown to black with dentate edges prominent in males. Male chelicerae with pronounced warts but not visible with a lens. Female abdomen brown to black, male abdomen dark brown to black. Legs yellow-brown to brown. Size: Female 2.6-3.4 mm; male 2.6-3.2 mm. Range: Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya), Russia (NW. European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Erigone atra Blackwall, 1833
Description: Carapace dark brown to black with dentate edges prominent in males but usually absent in females. Male chelicerae with only a few minute warts. Male palpal femur with teeth extending to about two thirds of its length. Male palpal tibia without a ventral tooth. Female abdomen brown to black, male abdomen dark brown to black. Legs yellow-brown to brown. Size: Female 2.0-2.6 mm; male 1.9-2.5 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya)?, Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Canary Islands), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Erigone autumnalis Emerton, 1882
Range: Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Azores), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: USA to Panama, West Indies, Azores, Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Epigyne.
Female.
Erigone longipalpis (Sundevall, 1830)
Range: Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya)?, Slovenia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Erigone promiscua (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)
Description: A rather small species. Carapace dark brown to black with dentate edges prominent in males but usually absent in females. Male palpal femur with teeth extending to about two thirds of its length. Male palpal tibia with a small ventral tooth. Female abdomen brown to black, male abdomen dark brown to black. Legs yellow-brown to brown. Size: Female 1.8-2.5 mm; male 1.9-2.4 mm. Range: Belgium, Faroe Islands, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Latvia?, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Erigone psychrophila Thorell, 1871
Description: Carapace dark brown to black with dentate edges prominent in males but absent in females. Male chelicerae with large warts anteriorly. Male palpal femur with teeth extending to about two thirds of its length and sometimes also one additional large tooth at apical end. Patellar apophysis is long curved and tapering. Male palpal tibia without a ventral tooth. Female abdomen yellow-brown to black, male abdomen dark brown to black. Legs yellow-brown to orange-brown. Size: Female 2.4-3.1 mm; male 2.0-3.0 mm. Range: Faroe Islands, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Russia (Franz Jozef Land), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Erigone tirolensis L. Koch, 1872
Description: Carapace dark brown to black with dentate edges prominent in males, minute or absent in females. Male chelicers with 6-7 fairly large warts on anterior surface (Locket & Millidge 1953). but these are not visible with a lens. Female abdomen brown to black, male abdomen dark brown to black. Legs yellow-brown to brown. Male palpal femur almost straight, ventral teeth distributed along practically whole length. Size: Female 2.2-2.8 mm; male 2.1-2.5 mm. Range: Austria, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Poland, Romania, Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Erigonella Dahl, 1901
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Erigonella hiemalis, E. ignobilis, E. subelevata, E. subelevata pyrenaea.
Erigonella hiemalis (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Erigonella ignobilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male, note rugose sternum.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Evansia O. P.-Cambridge, 1900
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Evansia merens.
Evansia merens O. P.-Cambridge, 1900
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female, abdominal markings consisting of vague chevrons.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Floronia Simon, 1887
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Floronia bucculenta.
Floronia bucculenta (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Frontinellina van Helsdingen, 1969
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Frontinellina dearmata, F. frutetorum.
Frontinellina frutetorum (C. L. Koch, 1834)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Glyphesis Simon, 1926
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Glyphesis cottonae, G. nemoralis, G. servulus, G. taoplesius.
Glyphesis cottonae (La Touche, 1946)
Range: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Gnathonarium Karsch, 1881
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Gnathonarium dentatum.
Gnathonarium dentatum (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male, characteristic palps shaped like a droplet.
Male.
Male palp.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Gonatium Menge, 1868
Biology: This genus has been reviewed by Millidge (1981). It is possible to recognise the members by the following combination of somatic characters: leg spination, presence of a tricobothrium on metatarsus IV, value of Tm I, and by the way the tarsal claws are pectinated (see description below). The genus is, however, also defined by the structure of the genitals which share characters thought to be derived (see Millidge (1981) for details).
Characters of genus: The species range in size from 2.0-3.7 mm. The cephalothorax and legs are bright orange, orange red or reddish brown. The male head carries no lobe but is slightly raised. Sternum at least as wide as long with coxae IV widely separated. Legs fairly long and slender. Leg spines are short, shorter and weaker in males than in females. Males have tibia I and to a lesser degree tibia II curved and swollen distally. They are furnished ventrally with many long hairs or bristles. Also metatarsi I and II and femora I and II are provided with many short spines or bristles ventrally. There is a single spine on each tibia in both sexes. All metatarsi with a trichobothrium. Tm I range from 0.75-0.95 (Millidge 1981). The tarsal claws are pectinated, consisting of narrow, needle-like teeth. The pectination is different in almost all other groups of spiders with pectinate claws (Millidge 1981). Abdomen globular, often reddish with four sigilla dorsally. There is no scutum. The male palpal femur is swollen in some species. The epigynes of all Gonatium species have the same general appearance, and depending on the number of species at a given locality specimens may be identifiable with a lens.
There are 14 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Gonatium biimpressum, G. ensipotens, G. fuscum, G. geniculosum, G. gilbum, G. hilare, G. nemorivagum, G. occidentale, G. orientale, G. pallidum, G. paradoxum, G. rubellum, G. rubens, G. strugaense.
Gonatium rubellum (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Gonatium rubens (Blackwall, 1833)
Description: Both sexes entirely orange to reddish-brown with abdomen sometimes darker, usually reddish grey, rarely blackish. Abdomen with four distinct sigilla. Males have prominent head region and rather closely spaced eyes ringed with black. Tibia I is curved, thickened distally and with denser hairing ventrally. Male palpal tibia and femur swollen, the latter with numerous small black spines and with a single, pointed tooth distally. Size: Female 2.6-3.3 mm; male 2.5-2.7 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Moulting female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Gongylidiellum Simon, 1884
Characters of genus: The genus contains mostly small species less than 2 mm body length. Genus characters are not visible with a hand lens but require a stereomicroscope. Male head not elevated. Apparently, males use sound production in courtship as the branchial opercula are provided with stridulating ridges opposing a tooth-like outgrowth on coxae IV. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. Tibiae I-II with two spines, III-IV with just one.
There are 8 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Gongylidiellum compar, G. crassipes, G. edentatum, G. incertum (nomen dubium), G. latebricola, G. murcidum, G. parvum (nomen dubium), G. vivum.
Gongylidiellum latebricola (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Gongylidiellum murcidum Simon, 1884
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Gongylidiellum vivum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Description: Small species with reddish brown carapace and pale, yellowish, grey or brownish grey abdomen. Males are generally darker than females. At closer inspection abdomens of lighter coloured specimens are mottled whitish grey - light yellowish grey. The median line of the carapace has some long, forward directed spines. Eyes relatively large and the eye group appears rather compact. Legs orange brown. Males may be identified in the field using a lens by the shape of the tibial apophysis viewed from above. Size: Female 1.5-1.8 mm; male 1.2-1.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Gongylidium Menge, 1868
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Gongylidium gebhardti, G. rufipes, G. soror.
Gongylidium rufipes (Linnaeus, 1758)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Halorates Hull, 1911
Characters of genus: Male carapace not modified, both sexes similar in general appearance (Roberts 1985). Chelicerae of males with a large cylindrical tubercle, just above the outer row of teeth (Locket & Millidge 1953). Metatarsus IV almost twice as long as tarsus IV. All tibia with two spines, but no lateral ones (Locket & Millidge 1953).
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Halorates reprobus.
Halorates reprobus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879)
Description: Robust appearance. Carapace brown with darker striae, abdomen grey to black (Locket & Millidge 1953). Sternum yellow-brown, legs brown. Tm I 0.6-07. Tm IV present. Tibial spines long, but fine and hair-like. Size: Female 2.5-4 mm; male 2.5-3 mm. Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Helophora Menge, 1866
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Helophora insignis.
Helophora insignis (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary?, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Hilaira Simon, 1884
Characters of genus: Although fairly small Linyphiinae species they appear as large species of Erigoninae due to the generally dark colours. The carapace is broad in front. The front half of the carapace is domed, however much less so in females than in males. The males are separable in the field by the shape of the dome in lateral view using a lens (see drawings of carapaces in Roberts, 1987). Chelicers appear robust. Tibiae I-IV with two dorsal spines with one additional prolateral spine on tibia I (Locket & Millidge, 1951). Male palp complex and with large paracymbium and with tibial apophysis. Note that H. frigida recently has been transferred to the genus Oreoneta.
There are 11 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Hilaira consimilis, H. excisa, H. gibbosa, H. glacialis, H. herniosa, H. incondita, H. nivalis, H. nubigena, H. pervicax, H. proletaria, H. vexatrix.
Hilaira excisa (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Hylyphanthes Simon, 1884
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Hylyphanthes graminicola, H. nigritus.
Hylyphanthes graminicola (Sundevall, 1830)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Hypomma Dahl, 1886
Characters of genus: The commonest species (including the Faroese species) are characterized by orange prosoma, legs and black, glossy abdomens with four distinct sigilla. Male head elevated into two large lobes divided longitudinally. Eyes are situated in front of lobes. Tibia I-IV with one short dorsal spines less than diameter of tibia in length. Male palp with two tibial apophyses, one short and small, one long and slender.
There are 5 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Hypomma aemonicum, H. bituberculatum, H. brevitibiale, H. cornutum, H. fulvum.
Hypomma bituberculatum (Wider, 1834)
Description: Carapace and legs orange to bright reddish brown. Head in male raised into large, longitudinally divided lobe that are paler than the rest of the carapace. Ocular region suffused with black. Tibial spines short i females, absent in males. Size: Female 2.5-3.0 mm; male 2.2-2.6 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands?, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Hypselistes Simon, 1894
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Hypselistes florens, H. jacksoni, H. semiflavus.
Hypselistes jacksoni (O. P.-Cambridge, 1902)
Range: Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Improphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 1996
Biology: Species belonging to this genus have similarities to species of Lepthyphantes and the cluster of genera generated from it in recent years. Undivided Lepthyphantes would contain 396 species which is too many to handle. As a consequence many former Lepthyphantes species have been grouped in to new genera mainly based on small details in the copulatory organs.
Characters of genus: Small linyphiids ranging form 1.45 to slightly longer than 2 mm body length (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1996). Legs not annulated or banded. Tm IV without a trichobothrium. Abdomen grey to black without pattern. Males are characterized by the sickle-shaped embolus with open sulcus and slightly reduced carina (not visible with a hand lens). Epigynes are protruding and large.
There are 8 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Improphantes complicatus, I. decolor, I. furcabilis, I. geniculatus, I. holmi, I. improbulus, I. multidentatus, I. nitidus.
Improphantes complicatus (Emerton, 1882)
Description: Both males and females have carapace and legs pale yellow-brown and grey abdomens (Locket & Millidge 1953). Tm I ca. = 0.2. Metatarsi with one spine each Size: 1.7-2.2 mm. Range: Austria, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female, note the characteristic shape of the projecting epigyne in lateral view.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Ipa Saaristo, 2007
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Ipa keyserlingi, I. spasskyi, I. terrenus.
Ipa keyserlingi (Ausserer, 1867)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male, note the characteristic forked lamella of the palp.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Kaestneria Wiehle, 1956
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Kaestneria dorsalis, K. pullata, K. torrentum.
Kaestneria dorsalis (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Kaestneria pullata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1863)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Genus: Labulla Simon, 1884
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Labulla flahaulti, L. machadoi, L. thoracica.
Labulla thoracica (Wider, 1834)
Description: This is one of the larger member of the Line Weaving Spider family. The abdomen is rather variable in colour but with a very distinctive black pattern. Size: Female 3.5-6.5 mm; male 4.5-5.5 mm. Habitat: The spider spins it sheet web at the base of tree trunks, among exposed roots, in holes in the ground or tree hollows or among low vegetation i shady places. Range: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Lepthyphantes Menge, 1866
Biology: Due to the high number of species in this genus (formerly almost 400) many former Lepthyphantes species have been grouped in to new genera mainly based on small details in the copulatory organs. Saaristo & Tanasevitch (1996) limit the genus to only five species of which only two are European, but this is apparently not followed by Platnick.
Characters of genus: Medium to large linyphiids ranging form 2.5 to 4.5 mm body length (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1996). Legs clearly annulated in European species. Tm IV without trichobothrium. Abdomen with a distinct pattern, usually composed of broad black transverse markings formed as bars, bands or chevrons on a grey background. Abdomens may be dotted with some whitish spots. Males are characterized by the sickle-shaped embolus with tight sulcus and large carina (not visible with a hand lens). Epigynes wit large scape arising from the inside of the epigynal cavity. Note that there is some disagreements on the delineation of the genus. The genus description here is based on a narrow conception as given by Saaristo & Tanasevitch (1996).
There are 61 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Lepthyphantes acoreensis, L. aegeus, L. agnellus, L. albuloides, L. anguliformis, L. bacelarae, L. balearicus, L. beckeri, L. beroni, L. beshkovi, L. bigerrensis, L. brignolianus, L. carlittensis, L. centromeroides, L. centromeroides carpathicus, L. constantinescui, L. corfuensis, L. corsicos, L. dilutus, L. eleonorae, L. encaustus, L. eugeni, L. fagei, L. gadesi, L. garganicus, L. hamifer, L. huberti, L. ibericus, L. impudicus, L. ivanovi (nomen dubium), L. kratochvili, L. leprosus, L. leucopygus, L. ligulifer, L. lundbladi, L. luteipes, L. magnesiae, L. mauli, L. meillonae, L. melanotus (nomen dubium), L. messapicus, L. minutus, L. moratus (nomen dubium), L. nitidior, L. nodifer, L. notabilis, L. ollivieri, L. opilio, L. palmeroensis, L. pannonicus, L. paoloi, L. phallifer, L. ritae, L. sardous, L. suldalensis, L. tenerrimus, L. tenoides (nomen dubium), L. thienemanni, L. todillus, L. turbatrix, L. zaragozai.
Lepthyphantes acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Palp and epigyne.
Lepthyphantes leprosus (Ohlert, 1865) - House line-weaver
Description: Carapace yellow-brown to brown with darker striae (Locket & Millidge 1953). Legs similarly coloured but with blackish annulations and relatively long spines. Abdomen brownish with transverse chevron-like black bars and with black sides. Brown areas with white, mostly small dots of varying forms and sizes. Tm I = ca. 0.13. Etymology: the latin species name "leprosus" means appearing decayed, having the appearance of infection by leprosy (Wiktionary). Size: Female 2.4-3.8 mm; male 2.4-3.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands?, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic, Chile (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Lepthyphantes minutus (Blackwall, 1833)
Description: Lepthyphantes minutus is one of the larger Lepthyphantes species despite that the species name indicate the opposite. The explanation is that the species earlier was assigned to the Linyphia genus which consists of relatively larger species. The abdomen has a beatifully golden colouration with ligther spots. Habitat: The species is common in woods where i build a sheet web at the bases of tree trunks, under logs and in holes of trees. Range: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female, venter.
Genus: Leptorhoptrum Kulczynski, 1894
Characters of genus: This genus holds only one, fairly large species with simple genitals.
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Leptorhoptrum robustum.
Leptorhoptrum robustum (Westring, 1851)
Description: Carapace grey, yellow-brown or brown, darker in head region. Chelicers robust. Legs yellow-brown. Tm I ca. 0.54 (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen grey or black with some pubescence. The epigyne is simple with a projecting sclerotized ridge. The male palp is small, slender and simple. Size: Female 3.2-4.8 mm; male 3.0-4.3 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Subadult male.
Male.
Male, consuming a worm.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Leptothrix Menge, 1869
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Leptothrix hardyi.
Leptothrix hardyi (Blackwall, 1850)
Range: Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Lessertia Smith, 1908
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Lessertia barbara, L. dentichelis.
Lessertia dentichelis (Simon, 1884)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Canary Is, Madeira, Canada, New Zealand (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Palp.
Female.
Genus: Linyphia Latreille, 1804
There are 22 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Linyphia alpicola, L. coronaria (nomen dubium), L. delicatula (nomen dubium), L. frondosa (nomen dubium), L. furcigera (nomen dubium), L. furva (nomen dubium), L. hortensis, L. lugubris (nomen dubium), L. maura, L. mimonti, L. nasata (nomen dubium), L. nigella (nomen dubium), L. obesa, L. polita, L. pulchella (nomen dubium), L. punctata (nomen dubium), L. ripariola (nomen dubium), L. tenella (nomen dubium), L. tenuipalpis, L. triangularis, L. triangularis juniperina, L. ulicicolens.
Linyphia hortensis Sundevall, 1830
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia?, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male palp.
Male.
Male.
Linyphia tenuipalpis Simon, 1884
Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male palp.
Male.
Male.
Linyphia triangularis (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, introduced in USA (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female venter.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Lophomma Menge, 1868
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Lophomma punctatum.
Lophomma punctatum (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Macrargus Dahl, 1886
There are 6 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Macrargus boreus, M. carpenteri, M. excavatus, M. multesimus, M. rufus.
Macrargus carpenteri (O. P.-Cambridge, 1894)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Macrargus rufus (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Maro O. P.-Cambridge, 1906
There are 5 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Maro lehtineni, M. lepidus, M. minutus, M. sibiricus, M. sublestus.
Maro lepidus Casemir, 1961
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Maso Simon, 1884
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Maso gallicus, M. sundevalli.
Maso gallicus Simon, 1894
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Maso sundevalli (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Mecynargus Kulczynski, 1894
Characters of genus: Males of this genus are characterized by a short embolus lying in a loop in the distal part of the bulbus (not visible with a lens). Epigynes broader than long or as broad as long. Males of some species has the carapace slightly domed behind the eyes or elevated conically (Roberts 1987, Marusik in prep.).
There are 10 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Mecynargus borealis, M. brocchus, M. foveatus, M. longus, M. monticola, M. morulus, M. paetulus, M. pyrenaeus, M. sphagnicola, M. tungusicus.
Mecynargus foveatus (Dahl, 1912)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Poland, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe to Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Mecynargus morulus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)
Description: Head not elevated in to lobe in male but nevertheless rather characteristic in shape. Carapace yellow to dark brown with darker striae (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen greyish black, rarely brown. Legs coloured as carapace or lighter. Tm I ca. 0.7-0.77, Tm IV absent (Locket & Millidge 1953, Roberts 1987). Only species in genus in which males possess distinct stridulating ridges on the branchial opercula with an opposing tooth on each Coxa IV (Roberts 1987, Marusik in prep.). Stridulating ridges are much less developed in females (Locket & Millidge 1953). Size: Female 1.7-2.0 mm; male 1.6-1.9 mm. Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Faroe Islands, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Greenland, Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Megalepthyphantes Wunderlich, 1994
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Megalepthyphantes collinus, M. lydiae, M. nebulosus, M. pseudocollinus.
Megalepthyphantes lydiae Wunderlich, 1994
Range: Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Megalepthyphantes nebulosus (Sundevall, 1830)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Juvenile hanging in web in compost bin.
Female in sheet web.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male palp.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Meioneta Hull, 1920
Characters of genus: Posterior eyes of approximately similar size or medians larger than laterals (Locket & Millidge 1953). Tm I = ca. 0.20-0.30. Some species possess lateral spines on Tibia I and II. Without a trichobothrium on metatarsus IV. Meioneta share some morphological traits with Agyneta (see genus description for Agyneta).
There are 30 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Meioneta affinis, M. alpica, M. canariensis, M. depigmentata, M. equestris, M. fuscipalpa, M. gulosa, M. innotabilis, M. jacksoni, M. lugubris (nomen dubium), M. maritima, M. milleri, M. mollis, M. mossica, M. nigripes, M. nigripes nivicola, M. orites, M. pseudorurestris, M. punctata, M. resima, M. ressli, M. ripariensis, M. rufidorsa, M. rurestris, M. rurestris ovata (nomen dubium), M. saxatilis, M. similis, M. simplicitarsis, M. saaristoi, M. tenera (nomen dubium), M. tibialis.
Meioneta affinis (Kulczynski, 1898)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Meioneta canariensis (Wunderlich, 1987)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Meioneta depigmentata (Wunderlich, 2008)
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Meioneta fuscipalpa (C. L. Koch, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden?, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Palp and epigyne.
Meioneta gulosa (L. Koch, 1869)
Description: Carapace yellow brown to dark brown, abdomen grey to black (Locket & Millidge 1953). Posterior medials only slightly larger than laterals. Female palp not swollen but suffused with black. Tarsus of male palp distinctly elevated. Epigyne very similar to those of other species of the genus. Size: Female 1.7-2.1 mm; male 1.8-2.0 mm. Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Meioneta innotabilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1863)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Meioneta nigripes (Simon, 1884)
Description: Very dark species. Carapace and legs dark brown, abdomen black. Posterior medial eyes are almost twice as large as anterior medials. Female palp not swollen but suffused with black. Tarsus of male palp only slightly elevated. Epigyne very similar to other species of the genus. Size: Female 1.7-2.2 mm; male 1.6-1.8 mm. Range: Austria, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya), Russia (NW. European), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Canada, Greenland, Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Meioneta rurestris (C. L. Koch, 1836)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya)?, Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Meioneta saxatilis (Blackwall, 1844)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Mermessus O. P.-Cambridge, 1899
There are 5 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Mermessus bryantae, M. denticulatus, M. fradeorum, M. maculatus, M. trilobatus.
Mermessus bryantae (Ivie & Barrows, 1935)
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: North America, Cuba, Venezuela, Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Palp.
Male.
Mermessus fradeorum (Berland, 1932)
Range: Portugal (Azores), Spain (Canary Islands) (introduced) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Palp and epigyne.
Female.
Genus: Metopobactrus Simon, 1884
There are 12 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Metopobactrus ascitus, M. cavernicola, M. deserticola, M. falcifrons, M. nadigi, M. nodicornis, M. orbelicus, M. prominulus, M. schenkeli, M. triangulatus (nomen dubium), M. verticalis.
Metopobactrus prominulus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Micrargus Dahl, 1886
There are 11 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Micrargus alpinus, M. apertus, M. cupidon, M. dilutus, M. dissimilis, M. georgescuae, M. herbigradus, M. incomtus, M. laudatus, M. pervicax, M. subaequalis.
Micrargus herbigradus (Blackwall, 1854)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Microctenonyx Dahl, 1886
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Microctenonyx apuliae, M. subitaneus.
Microctenonyx subitaneus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (elsewhere, introduced) (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Microlinyphia Gerhardt, 1928
Characters of genus: Medium sized spiders 2.8-4.6 mm, larger species are found outside Europe (van Helsdingen 1970). This species displays a large sexual dimorphism. Cephalothorax of male is longer and narrower than in female. Abdomen tubular in male and usually dark while more oblong and lighter coloured in females. Posterior medial eyes on black tubercles. Lateral eyes contiguous. Legs long and slender, most noticeable in males. Embolus long and thread-like in European species, easily visible with a lens. The chelicerae in males are long, more than half the length of the cephalothorax and inclined somewhat backwards. The epigyne is small, inconspicuous and consists of an arch anterior to the openings and a small scape-like protrusion. The arch is dark and barely more sclerotized than surrounding area.
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Microlinyphia impigra, M. johnsoni, M. pusilla, M. pusilla quadripunctata.
Microlinyphia impigra (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Microlinyphia johnsoni (Blackwall, 1859)
Range: Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira, Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Egg sack, covering silk removed showing content of 14 eggs.
Female.
Female.
Microlinyphia pusilla (Sundevall, 1830)
Description: Male: Carapace brown to dark brown. Legs yellow-brown without annulations but with blackish streaks on basal half of femora in dark specimens. Abdomen tubular, dark brown with one pair of white spots anteriorly (rarely two pairs). The male palp has a large looped embolus which in lateral view encircle an area about twice as big as that covered by the palpal organs. Female: Cephalothorax less elongate than in male and brown. Abdomen is shorter and higher compared to males, ovoid in dorsal view. Ventral surface of lateral and posterior surface as well as ventral surface dark brown or blackish. Dorsally light coloured with a broad dark brown median band broken posteriorly in dark spots, the first being diamond shaped. Size: Female 3-5 mm; male 3-4 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male, note large hooped embolus of palp.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Microneta Menge, 1869
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Microneta caestata, M. inops, M. iracunda, M. viaria.
Microneta viaria (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Midia Saaristo & Wunderlich, 1995
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Midia midas.
Midia midas (Simon, 1884)
Range: Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Habitat, a pair of handsome fat old guys.
Habitat.
This tree was habitat for both Midia midas and the rare pseudoscorpion Anthrenochernes stellae.
Female.
Female, note the characteristic, large epigyne.
Male.
Han.
Han.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Juvenile female two moults from adulthood. The abdominal markings are characteristic but the legs are not yet red as in adults.
Part of prey-catching web drawn from image.
Female.
Subadult female, characteristic pre-epigyne.
Female.
Subadult female, abdominal markings.
Subadult female.
Exuvium.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female with prey.
Female.
Genus: Minicia Thorell, 1875
There are 9 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Minicia candida, M. candida obscurior, M. caspiana, M. elegans , M. floresensis, M. gomerae, M. grancanariensis, M. marginella, M. teneriffensis.
Minicia floresensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Minicia marginella (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Canary Islands), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Subadult male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Minicia teneriffensis Wunderlich, 1979
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female (id?).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female (id?).
Female.
Genus: Minyriolus Simon, 1884
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Minyriolus columbinus, M. medusa, M. phaulobius, M. pusillus.
Minyriolus pusillus (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Moebelia Dahl, 1886
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Moebelia berolinensis, M. penicillata.
Moebelia penicillata (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Monocephalus Smith, 1906
Biology: The species are identifiable by the heads, palps and epigynes but in most cases a stereomicroscope is needed.
Characters of genus: Male head elevated and depressed at sides. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. Tibiae I-IV with one spine but tibia I-II spineless in males.
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Monocephalus castaneipes, M. fuscipes.
Monocephalus fuscipes (Blackwall, 1836)
Description: Carapace is brown (Locket & Millidge 1953). Male head elevated, deeply depressed at sides. Abdomen grey to black. Sternum orange-brown, darker at sides and with reticulations. Legs brown to orange brown. Tm I 0.59-0.66 (Roberts 1987). Size: Female 1.7-2.1 mm; male 1.7-2.0 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Faroe Islands, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, venter.
Female.
Genus: Mughiphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 1999
Biology: A group of former Lepthyphantes species now reclassified to the new Mughiphantes genus (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1999).
Characters of genus: Medium sized spiders ranging from 1.6-2.8 mm (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1999). In some species the abdomen has a striking pattern. Tibiae usually with one or more ventral spines. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. Female epigyne disc or pear shaped, often thickened with an almost rigid scape. The male palp shows some adaptations to the rigid scape of the epigyne but these are not visible with a lens.
There are 27 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Mughiphantes arlaudi, M. armatus, M. baebleri, M. brunneri, M. carnicus, M. cornutus, M. hadzii, M. handschini, M. ignavus, M. johannislupi, M. jugorum, M. lithoclasicola, M. merretti, M. mughi, M. omega, M. pulcher, M. pulcheroides, M. pyrenaeus, M. rupium, M. severus, M. sobrius, M. styriacus, M. suffusus, M. triglavensis, M. variabilis, M. varians, M. whymperi.
Mughiphantes mughi (Fickert, 1875)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Mughiphantes pulcher (Kulczynski, 1881)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia?, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Mughiphantes whymperi (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1894)
Description: Carapace yellow brown (Locket & Millidge 1953). Head with some fairly strong forward directed spines, more pronounced in males. Legs yellow brown. Metatarsi with several spines. Tibial spines long, almost four times diameter of tibia. Abdomen grey with unclear darker pattern. Size: Female 2.6-3.2 mm; male 2.5-3.2 mm. Range: Faroe Islands, Finland, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Ireland, Britain, Finland, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Nematogmus Simon, 1884
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Nematogmus sanguinolentus.
Nematogmus sanguinolentus (Walckenaer, 1842)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Neriene Blackwall, 1833
There are 13 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Neriene avida, N. carinata (nomen dubium), N. clathrata, N. emphana, N. furtiva, N. furva (nomen dubium), N. hammeni, N. montana, N. pallidula (nomen dubium), N. peltata, N. pulla (nomen dubium), N. radiata, N. sulcata (nomen dubium).
Neriene clathrata (Sundevall, 1830)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female, stridulation ridges on chelicers.
Palp.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, venter.
Female.
Female, feeding.
Male.
Female, tibia IV.
Neriene emphana (Walckenaer, 1842)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Neriene furtiva (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Andorra, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa, Russia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Neriene montana (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Neriene peltata (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Greenland, Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Notioscopus Simon, 1884
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Notioscopus sarcinatus.
Notioscopus sarcinatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female, fangs buried in Sphagnum - in order to provide drinking water?.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Nusoncus Wunderlich, 2008
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Nusoncus nasutus.
Nusoncus nasutus Schenkel, 1925
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Obscuriphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 2000
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Obscuriphantes obscurus, O. obscurus dilutior.
Obscuriphantes obscurus (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Genus: Oedothorax Bertkau, in Förster & Bertkau, 1883
There are 15 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Oedothorax agrestis, O. agrestis longipes, O. apicatus, O. curtipes (nomen dubium), O. fuscus, O. gibbifer, O. gibbosus, O. insignis, O. montanus (nomen dubium), O. pallidus, O. paludigena, O. retusus, O. subniger, O. tener, O. tingitanus.
Oedothorax apicatus (Blackwall, 1850)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Oedothorax fuscus (Blackwall, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa, Azores, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male with parasitic mites.
Male with gravid parasitic mite.
Male with mite taking a stroll up the spiders femur.
Female.
Oedothorax gibbosus (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male (forma tuberosus).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male (forma tuberosus).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Oedothorax retusus (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Oreoneta Chyzer & Kulczynski, 1894
Characters of genus: The genus has been revised by Saaristo & Marusik (2003). It is defined by the structure of the copulatory organs, particularly by the shape of the male embolic membrane (Saaristo & Marusik 2003). Medium sized linyphiids ranging from 2.5-4.75 mm. Most species are dark, cephalothorax and legs brown with greenish grey-greenish black abdomen. The male carapace is somewhat elevated at front while the female carapace is unmodified.
There are 8 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Oreoneta fennica, O. frigida, O. leviceps, O. montigena, O. punctata, O. sinuosa, O. tatrica, O. uralensis.
Oreoneta frigida (Thorell, 1872)
Description: Carapace orange to brown, slightly domed behind eyes (Locket & Millidge 1953). Sternum orange brown. Colour of abdomen vary from yellow-brown, brown, grey to black, perhaps generally darker in males. Legs orange brown to brown, Tm I ca. 0.6-0.7. The male palp has a large tibial apophysis and the female epigyne is much wider than long. Size: Female 3-4 mm; male 2.8-3.3 mm. Range: Faroe Islands, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Ireland, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Poland, Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Greenland to Norway (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Oreonetides Strand, 1901
Biology: The delimitation of this genus has been subject to some confusion and disagreement (Saaristo 1972, van Helsdingen 1981).
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Oreonetides glacialis, O. quadridentatus, O. vaginatus.
Oreonetides vaginatus (Thorell, 1872)
Description: Carapace brown with some thin forward directed hairs in head region. Legs coloured as carapace. Tm I ca. 0.4 (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen light yellowish- to orange-brown or -grey. Sparsely clothed with fairly long, dark hairs. Size: Female 3.0-3.8 mm; male 3.0-3.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, characteristic epigyne.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Oryphantes Hull, 1932
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Oryphantes angulatus, O. geminus.
Oryphantes angulatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1881)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Genus: Ostearius (Hull, 1911)
Characters of genus: All tibia with two dorsal spines but no lateral spines. Metatarsus IV about twice as long as tarsus IV. Male palp with tibial apophysis.
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Ostearius melanopygius.
Ostearius melanopygius (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879) - Midget spider
Description: The carapace is dark brown to black not elevated in males. Legs are reddish brown and fairly long. Femur I is shorter than the carapace. Metatarsus IV is about twice as long as tarsus IV, but the metatarsi are shorter than the tibiae. The clypeus is slightly concave. The male chelicerae is provided with a strong pointed conical tubercle with a bristle at its tip. The chelicerae is thickened at the base and provided with conspicuous stridulating striae on the lateral sides. The tibial apophysis is bidentate and the epigyne lacks a free scape. The abdomen is reddish with a black area around the spinners. Size: Female 2.0-2.6 mm; male 2.0-2.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands (introduced), Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Characteristic black spot at rear.
Genus: Palliduphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 2001
Biology: Pale coloured spiders, mostly more or less cavernicolous in lifestyle. The genus incorporates a group of former Lepthyphantes species now reclassified to the new Palliduphantes genus based on synapomorphies of the secondary genital organs (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 2001). The males of the species share some special characters including similar shaped paracymbia which are large and tub-like. Also the lamella of the palps and the epigynes share similarities, the epigynes having a very characteristic appearance in dorsal view (see Saaristo & Tanasevitch 2001 for more details on diagnostic characters). The genus is subdivided in to eight species groups bases on the morphology of the secondary genital organs (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 2001)
Characters of genus: Small to medium sized linyphiids having body lengths ranging from 1.30-2.95 mm, but species larger than 2.5 mm are few (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 2001). Pale coloured spiders, the cephalothorax and appendages range in colour from pale yellow to pale orange and the unicoloured abdomen from pale yellow to grey or greyish brown, sometimes with a greenish tinge or a faint pattern of transverse stripes or chevrons. Legs with few spines. Metatarsus IV is without a trichobotrium.
There are 48 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Palliduphantes alutacius, P. angustiformis, P. antroniensis, P. arenicola, P. berlandi, P. bidentatus, P. bolivari, P. brignolii, P. byzantinus, P. cadiziensis, P. carusoi, P. cebennicus, P. ceretanus, P. cernuus, P. conradini, P. cortesi, P. culicinus, P. dentatidens, P. epaminondae, P. ericaeus, P. fagicola, P. florentinus, P. gypsi, P. insignis, P. istrianus, P. khobarum, P. liguricus, P. longiscapus, P. longiseta, P. lorifer, P. malickyi, P. margaritae, P. melitensis, P. milleri, P. minimus, P. montanus, P. oredonensis, P. pallidus, P. palmensis, P. pillichi, P. rubens, P. salfii, P. sanctivincenti, P. schmitzi, P. spelaeorum, P. stygius, P. tenerifensis, P. trnovensis.
Palliduphantes angustiformis (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Corsica), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica, Sardinia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Palliduphantes arenicola (Denis, 1964)
Range: France (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Palliduphantes ericaeus (Blackwall, 1853)
Description: Carapace, legs and abdomen yellow-brown. Tm I ca. 0.15-0.19 (Roberts 1987). Tibial spines very long, metatarsi IV spineless. Venter of abdomen often more greyish-brown. According to Locket & Millidge (1953) the abdomen is grey to black but I am not sure if I have seen blackish specimens. The epigyne is clearly projecting which is best seen in lateral view. Size: Female 1.4-1.9 mm; male 1.3-1.6 mm. Range: Belgium, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Central European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Palliduphantes longiscapus (Wunderlich, 1987)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female. Note stongly projecting epigyne..
Palliduphantes longiseta (Simon, 1884)
Range: France (Corsica), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica, Elba (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female, note projecting epigyne.
Palliduphantes pallidus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Panamomops Simon, 1884
There are 13 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Panamomops affinis, P. dybowskii, P. fagei, P. fedotovi, P. inconspicuus, P. latifrons, P. mengei, P. mutilus, P. palmgreni, P. similis (nomen dubium), P. strandi, P. sulcifrons, P. tauricornis.
Panamomops mengei Simon, 1926
Range: Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Parapelecopsis Wunderlich, 1992
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Parapelecopsis mediocris, P. nemoralioides, P. nemoralis.
Parapelecopsis nemoralis (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Pelecopsis Simon, 1864
There are 33 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Pelecopsis affinis, P. agaetensis, P. alpica, P. bicornuta, P. bucephala, P. capitata, P. coccinea, P. denisi, P. elongata, P. eminula, P. inedita, P. krausi, P. laptevi, P. lichenorum (nomen dubium), P. litoralis, P. loksai, P. margaretae, P. mengei, P. modica, P. moebi (nomen dubium), P. mutica, P. odontophora, P. palmgreni, P. parallela, P. partita, P. pooti, P. radicicola, P. robusta, P. steppensis, P. straminea (nomen dubium), P. susannae, P. tenera (nomen dubium), P. turgida (nomen dubium).
Pelecopsis bucephala (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Pelecopsis elongata (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Pelecopsis parallela (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Peponocranium Simon, 1884
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Peponocranium ludicrum, P. orbiculatum, P. praeceps, P. simile.
Peponocranium ludicrum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1861)
Range: Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Pityohyphantes Simon, 1929
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Pityohyphantes palilis, P. phrygianus.
Pityohyphantes phrygianus (C. L. Koch, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female guarding eggsack.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Pocadicnemis Simon, 1884
There are 6 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Pocadicnemis americana, P. carpatica, P. jacksoni, P. juncea, P. pumila.
Pocadicnemis juncea Locket & Millidge, 1953
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Pocadicnemis pumila (Blackwall, 1841)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Poeciloneta Kulczynski, 1894
Biology: The single European species of this genus has a characteristic pattern on the abdomen. However, due to the small size of the species it is only identifiable with a lens.
Characters of genus: Clypeus narrow about equal to the diameter of one anterior lateral eye (Locket & Millidge 1953). Male fangs are strong and relatively longer than in females. Outer margin of chelicerae with four large teeth (only visible in a stereomicroscope). Legs rather long. Femur I with a prolateral spine, tibiae with two dorsal spines but no lateral spines. Metatarsi without spines; metatarsus IV with a trichobothrium.
There is 1 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Poeciloneta variegata.
Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841)
Description: Carapace yellow-brown with dark margins, striae, fovea and thin, dark lines extending back from the posterior lateral eyes to a dark rectangular field behind the head. Eyes on black spots. Sternum yellow-brown, often with dark margins. Legs coloured as carapace with more or less pronounced blackish annulations. Tm I ca. 0.71-0.8 (Roberts 1987). Abdomen brown or brownish grey with white reticulations and black transverse markings with a characteristic wavy (anchor shaped?) pattern. Size: Female 1.8-2.5 mm; male 1.8-2.4 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Egg cocoon.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Porrhomma Simon, 1884
Biology: A fairly homogenous group of small spiders which are difficult to identify due to similarity of species and rather great intraspecific variation. Some species are adapted morphologically to troglodytic or subterranean lifestyle, e.g. with eyes distinctly reduced or with paler pigmentation. Depending on habitat, troglodytic species exhibit a great degree of plasticity in morphological adaptations (even leg spination varies) which further complicates identification. The species of Porrhomma are mainly found in the temperate zone of the northern Hemisphere, with most species in the Palaearctic region.
Characters of genus: There is no recent revision of the genus available. The description here is based on Locket & Millidge (1953), and Borges & Wunderlich (2008). Ocular area with some forward projecting hairs, most pronounced in males. Eyes are variable in size, in some species minute or absent. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. The species differ in leg spination, a character that is useful for grouping the species aiding identification. Male palp with no tibial apophysis. Some species possess stridulating files on coxa I while these are reduced or absent in others. The latter case is considered a derived (apomorphic) character of the genus. Tm I of British species range between 0.3-0.64 (Roberts 1987).
There are 29 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Porrhomma boreale, P. borgesi, P. calypso (nomen dubium), P. cambridgei, P. campbelli, P. convexum, P. corsicum, P. egeria, P. errans, P. fonsfrigidum (nomen dubium), P. inconspicuum (nomen dubium), P. jacksoni (nomen dubium), P. lativelum, P. microcavense, P. microphthalmum, P. microps, P. montanum, P. myops, P. oblitum, P. omissum, P. pallidum, P. pallidum affinis, P. profundum, P. pygmaeum, P. rasum (nomen dubium), P. rosenhaueri, P. rufipes (nomen dubium), P. spipolae, P. umbraticum (nomen dubium).
Porrhomma borgesi Wunderlich, 2008
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Palp and epigyne.
Porrhomma convexum (Westring, 1851)
Description: A fairly large Porrhomma species. Carapace yellow-brown to blackish brown. Ocular area with forward projecting hairs. Abdomen greyish black. Legs yellow-brown. Femur I with one or two dorsal spines and without prolateral spine. All metatarsi spineless. Tm I 0.4-0.49 (Roberts 1987). Size: 2.2-3.0 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Porrhomma microphthalmum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Porrhomma montanum Jackson, 1913
Description: Variable in colouration. Carapace yellow-brown to greyish-brown. Ocular area with fairly long forward projecting hairs. Abdomen pale yellow to greyish black. Legs pale yellow to brown. Femora I without dorsal spines but with one prolateral spine. All metatarsi spineless. Tm I 0.3-0.4 (Roberts 1987). Size: Female 1.5-2.2 mm; male 1.5-2.0 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Porrhomma pygmaeum (Blackwall, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Praestigia Millidge, 1954
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Praestigia duffeyi, P. groenlandica, P. kulczynskii, P. pini.
Praestigia duffeyi Millidge, 1954
Range: Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Netherlands (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female (arrow in inset points to small projection on head which allows identification in the field using a 20 x lens).
Male.
Male.
Genus: Prinerigone Millidge, 1988
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Prinerigone pigra, P. vagans.
Prinerigone vagans (Audouin, 1826)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Old World (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Saloca Simon, 1926
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Saloca diceros, S. flagellifera (nomen dubium), S. kulczynskii.
Saloca diceros (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Savignia Blackwall, 1833
Characters of genus: The Savignia species group was redefined by Millidge (1977) as the original description by Blackwall (1833) only accommodated one species Savignia frontata which erroneously was grouped with six-eyed spiders. A number of new species have been assigned to this genus in recent years (The World Spider Catalog by Platnick). The genus is closely related to Diplocephalus and other genera with similar structures of genitals and it has been proposed to merge these genera (Millidge 1997). However, Eskov (1988) on the other hand would like to limit Savignia to species with T-shaped embolic division and an embolus which is slightly curved and directed backwards (Bosselaers & Henderickx 2002).
There are 6 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Savignia frontata, S. fronticornis, S. harmsi, S. naniplopi, S. producta, S. superstes.
Savignia frontata Blackwall, 1833
Description: Carapace dark brown to black. Female carapace unmodified, male carapace long, raised in to a highly characteristic snout-like projection bearing a tuft of hairs. Anterior medial eyes are situated on the snout. Darker fovea and striae are visible on alcohol preserved specimens. Legs brown. Tm 1 ca. 0.47-0.53 (Roberts 1987). Metatarsus without a trichobothrium. Tibiae I-II with two spines (minute in males), tibiae III-IV with one spine (Locket & Millidge 1953). Abdomen dark grey to black. Size: Female 1.5-2.0 mm; male 1.5-1.9 mm. Range: Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Savigniorrhipis Wunderlich, 1992
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Savigniorrhipis acoreensis, S. grandis.
Savigniorrhipis acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Genus: Scotinotylus Simon, 1884
Biology: The members of this genus is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere with many species endemic to North America (Millidge 1981). Generally, the species are associated with the cool climates of high latitudes. Further to the south the species are confined to high altitudes such as those of central European mountain ranges. Little is known about their biology. They have been found at ground level under stones. Several species have been found at the snow line.
Characters of genus: Species rich genus consisting of small species ranging from 1.2 to 3.0 mm (Millidge1981). Male head domed behind posterior eyes, in some species only slightly while in others formed in to a large lobe. Dome or lobe are furnished with some short, fine hairs on anterior or frontal parts, including ocular area. Sulci and pits may be present in those species having a definite lobe. Eyes are widely spaced and fairly small in some species, perhaps most pronounced in males. The female carapace is only slightly elevated behind the eyes and carries no other modifications. Chelicerae with stridulating files in both sexes and in all species (Millidge 1981). Abdomen without a scutum and practically unicolourous. Legs are relatively short and tend to appear stout in smaller species. Tibia and metatarsus I dorsally with dense short hairs in both sexes. In males of some species these hairs are curved (requires a stereomicroscope to be visible). Metatarsi I-III with a dorsal trichobothrium, metatarsus IV withou a trichobothrium. Tm I range between 0.35 and 0.7, but the value is less than 0.55 in most species (Millidge 1981). Male palpal tibia is elongated and swollen in some species. The palpal tibia may bear one or more thickened spines dorsally. Tibial apophysis usually short, often with a short tooth distallly. In species with a longer apophysis this terminates in a hook. As most linyphiid genera, Scotinotylus is defined more unambiguously by the structure of the genitals (see Millidge 1977, 1981 for details).
There are 9 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Scotinotylus alpigena, S. alpinus, S. antennatus, S. clavatus, S. evansi, S. provincialis, S. sacer, S. venetus.
Scotinotylus alpinus (Banks, 1896)
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Russia, Mongolia, Alaska, Canada, USA, Greenland (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Scotinotylus evansi (O. P.-Cambridge, 1894)
Description: Carapace yellow-brown to dark brown. Male head domed roundly behind the eyes. Ocular area with some short, fine hairs. Posterior medial eyes fairly small in male and spaced more than two diameters apart, in females only about one and a half diameter apart (Locket & Millidge 1953). Legs orange-brown to brown. Tm I 0.45-0.55 (Roberts 1987). Abdomen grey to black. Size: Female 1.8-2.3 mm; male 1.8-2.0 mm. Range: Austria, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia?, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Greenland, Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Semljicola Strand, 1906
There are 11 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Semljicola alticola, S. angulatus, S. arcticus, S. barbiger, S. caliginosus, S. caliginosus, S. faustus, S. lapponicus, S. latus, S. obtusus, S. thaleri.
Semljicola faustus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1900)
Description: Carapace yellow-brown (Locket & Millidge 1953). Male with some stout hairs in ocular area. Eyes rather large. Abdomen grey. Male branchial opercula with distinct stridulating ridges barely visible in female (note ridges also present on Mecynargus morulus often found in the same habitat). TM I 0.57-0.64 (Roberts 1987). Male tibiae I-III with basal spine small, and apical spine longer (Locket & Millidge 1953). Male palp with characteristic apical broad tibial apophysis. Size: Female 1.5-1.9 mm; male 1.5-1.8 mm. Range: Czech Republic, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Silometopus Simon, 1926
Biology: Some species tolerates flooding with sea water (Nentwig W, Blick T, Gloor D, Hänggi A, Kropf C: Araneae - Spiders of Europe).
Characters of genus: The species in this genus are rather similar in general appearance and in their genitalia (Roberts 1985). Small species, body length range from 1.0- 2.2 mm. Tibia I-IV with one dorsal spines, usually weak or even absent in most males (Roberts 1985). Sometimes Tibia I-II are without dorsal spines (Nentwig W, Blick T, Gloor D, Hänggi A, Kropf C: Araneae - Spiders of Europe - Key to Linyphiidae). Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. Metatarsi not much longer than tarsi with Mt I/T1 ca. 1.1-1.2 (Locket & Millidge 1953). Head of males very slightly to slightly domed behind the eyes depending on species. Abdomen with four dark-brown dots (sigilla) which become reddish in alcohol preserved specimens.
There are 14 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Silometopus acutus, S. ambiguus, S. ater (nomen dubium), S. bonessi, S. braunianus, S. curtus, S. elegans, S. incurvatus, S. nitidithorax, S. reussi, S. rosemariae, S. sordidatus (nomen dubium), S. tenuispinus, S. uralensis.
Silometopus ambiguus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1905)
Description: Carapace and coriaceous abdomen blackish. Carapace of alcohol preserved specimens dark brown and with visible blackish striae and margins. The male carapace is slightly domed behind the eyes. Tibial apophysis of male palp with relatively short and only sligthly bent process, the apophysis is longer and more strongly bent in congeners. Legs yellow-brown, usually with characteristic dark streaks, especially at the joints.Tm I 0.7-0.8. Note that the genitialia of this species is very similar to those of Silometopus curtus which overlap in habitat. Size: Female 1.5-2.2 mm; male 1.3-1.6 mm. Range: Denmark, Faroe Islands, France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Northern European), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Silometopus reussi (Thorell, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Sintula Simon, 1884
There are 9 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Sintula affinioides, S. corniger, S. cretaensis, S. criodes, S. diceros, S. furcifer, S. retroversus, S. roeweri, S. spiniger.
Sintula corniger (Blackwall, 1856)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Stemonyphantes Menge, 1866
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Stemonyphantes agnatus, S. conspersus, S. lineatus.
Stemonyphantes lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male palp.
Genus: Styloctetor Simon, 1884
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Styloctetor austerus, S. romanus, S. stativus.
Styloctetor romanus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, epigyne.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male abdomen with spinners.
Genus: Saaristoa Millidge, 1978
Characters of genus: Head not elevated in males. All tibiae with two dorsal spines. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium.
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Saaristoa abnormis, S. firma.
Saaristoa abnormis (Blackwall, 1841)
Description: Carapace yellow-brown. With long hairs along midline and sides of head. Abdomen yellowish, pinkish, brownish or blackish often with dark streaks at midline and sides. Sometimes vague, blackish chevrons are present. Tm I 0.43-0-48 (Roberts 1987). Size: Female 3.0-4.0 mm; male 3.0-3.8 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Female, spinners.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Tallusia Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1972
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Tallusia experta, T. pindos, T. vindobonensis.
Tallusia experta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Tapinocyba Simon, 1884
There are 22 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Tapinocyba abetoneensis, T. affinis, T. affinis orientalis, T. affinis pyrenaea, T. anceps, T. barsica, T. bilacunata, T. biscissa, T. corsica, T. discedens, T. dolosa (nomen dubium), T. insecta, T. latia, T. ligurica, T. lucana, T. maureri, T. mitis, T. pallens, T. praecox, T. silvestris, T. transsylvanica, T. ventosa.
Tapinocyba insecta (L. Koch, 1869)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Tapinocyba pallens (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Armenia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Tapinocyba praecox (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Tapinopa Westring, 1851
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Tapinopa disjugata, T. longidens.
Tapinopa longidens (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Taranucnus Simon, 1884
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Taranucnus bihari, T. setosus.
Taranucnus setosus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1863)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Tenuiphantes Saaristo & Tanasevitch, 1996
Biology: Previously, members of this genus were placed in the species rich genus of Lepthyphantes. A homogenous group of species have now been transferred to the Tenuiphantes genus which is characterised by their copulatory organs. Markings can be quite variable within species, nevertheless they are sometimes useful for separating the species.
Characters of genus: Small to large linyphiids ranging from 1.7-4.1 mm body length (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1996). Males are characterized by having a sinuous embolus, often with a dentigerous protrusion at about halfway while females are characterized by having the proscapus bordered at either side by a lateral wing-like extension of the median part of the scapus (Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1996). Epigynes of T. alacris females also characterized by strongly developed lateral teeth. Paracymbium with 0-3 teeth. The species differ in leg spination. Metatarsus without a trichobothrium except in T. retezaticus (endemic to Romania). Most species have uniformly coloured legs and a dark dorsal pattern on the abdomen usually composed of broad black transverse bars on a brownish background. Bars sometimes reduced to paired dots combined by thin black lines. Dorsal pattern is usually more obscure in males. Legs fairly long and with long spines.
There are 23 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Tenuiphantes alacris, T. canariensis, T. cristatus, T. drenskyi, T. flavipes, T. floriana, T. fogarasensis, T. fulvus, T. herbicola, T. jacksoni, T. jacksonoides, T. leprosoides, T. mengei, T. miguelensis, T. monachus, T. nigriventris, T. retezaticus, T. spiniger, T. striatiscapus, T. tenebricola, T. tenebricoloides, T. tenuis, T. zimmermanni.
Tenuiphantes alacris (Blackwall, 1853)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Tenuiphantes cristatus (Menge, 1866)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Tenuiphantes mengei (Kulczynski, 1887)
Description: Carapace yellow-brown to dark brown. Eyes ringed with black but difficult to discern on specimens with dark carapaces. Sternum black. Legs yellow-brown sometimes darker at joints. Tm I ca. 0.18.0.22. Abdomen yellow-brown usually with dark transverse bars which vary in width among specimens. White glistening patches are present to a varying degree. They are usually most pronounced along lateral edges of the transverse bars. Some specimens lack both bars and white patches. Epigyne with circular notches on the lateral wing-like extension of the median part of the scapus. Male Paracymbium with a short, conical tooth near the margin facing tibia. Size: Female 1.7-2.4 mm; male 1.6-2.1 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Tenuiphantes miguelensis (Wunderlich, 1992)
Range: Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores, Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Tenuiphantes striatiscapus (Wunderlich, 1987)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Tenuiphantes tenebricola (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Tenuiphantes tenebricoloides (Schenkel, 1938)
Range: Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Tenuiphantes tenuis (Blackwall, 1852)
Description: Carapace brown to blackish. Anterior medials almost equidistant, with medials separated from laterals by ca. 0.5 diameter, laterals much less than twice the diameters of medials (Locket & Millidge 1953). Sternum blackish. Legs yellow-brown, fairly long and with long spines. TM 1 ca. 0.18-0.22 (Roberts 1987). Abdomen yellow-brown to almost black. Usually, dark transverse bars are present dorsally but they may be difficult to discern in specimens with dark background colours. Bars are often reduced to paired dots which may be combined by thin U- or V-bent black lines. Shining white patches are sometimes distributed across the dorsal surface of the abdomen, at other times mostly at sides if not absent completely. Epigyne anchor shaped, male palp with two teeth at each side of the paracymbium. Size: Female 2.0-3.2 mm; male 2.0-2.7 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands) (introduced), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa (elsewhere, introduced) (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female, killed by parasitic larva shortly after final moult.
Male.
Male.
Tenuiphantes zimmermanni (Bertkau, 1890)
Description: Carapace brown to blackish. Anterior medians distinctly nearer to each other than to laterals, medians separated from laterals by more than one diameter, laterals about twice the diameter of medians (Locket & Millidge 1953). Sternum blackish. Legs yellow-brown sometimes darker at joints. TM 1 ca. 0.18-0.22 (Roberts 1987). Abdomen yellow-brown to dark olive green. Usually dark transverse markings are present dorsally but they may be difficult to discern in specimens with dark background colours. Transverse marking often indistinct or broken in anterior half. Bars are usually distinct i posterior half, being straighter and thinner than anterior bars. Shining white patches are sometimes distributed across the dorsal surface of the abdomen, at other times mostly at sides if not absent completely. Some specimens lack both bars and white patches. Epigyne with relatively narrow scape posteriorly, male palp with a small outward directed tooth fairly high up on the paracymbium. Size: Female 2.2-3.1 mm; male 2.1-2.7 mm. Habitat: The species is common in leaf litter and low vegetation in many different habitats. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Thyreosthenius Simon, 1884
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Thyreosthenius biovatus, T. parasiticus.
Thyreosthenius biovatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Thyreosthenius parasiticus (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Tiso Simon, 1884
Characters of genus: Male head only slightly raised behind eyes. Eyes rather small. Metatarsus IV without a trichobothrium. Tm I 0.5-0.59 (Roberts 1987). Tibiae I-IV with one spine.
There are 3 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Tiso aestivus, T. strandi, T. vagans.
Tiso vagans (Blackwall, 1834)
Description: Carapace brown to blackish (generally darker in males which also have surface somewhat reticulated (not visible with a lens). Abdomen brownish-grey to black. Legs yellow-brown to greyish-brown. Tm I 0.51-0.59 (Roberts 1987). Male palpal tibia with some stout bristles and femur and patella are both elongated. Size: Female 1.7-2.2 mm; male 1.6-2.0 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Tmeticus Menge, 1868
Characters of genus: This genus description is based on Locket & Millidge (1953) and Saito & Ono (2001) and may not encompass all species currently assigned to this genus. Male head not elevated in to lobe but head may be highly raised. Male chelicerae with a large warty tooth anteriorly. Metatarsus IV with a trichobothrium. Female tibiae I-II with two spines, tibiae III-IV with one spine. Male tibiae I-II spineless, tibiae III-IV with one short spine. Male palpal tarsus and palpal organs are relatively small in some species. The species may be classified in to two groups based on the structure of the male palpal organs (Saito & Ono 2001). One group is characterized by very long male palps and a hook-shaped patellar apophysis while tibia is without distinct apophysis (except in Tmeticus affinis which have a small dorso-distal bifid tibial apophysis). The second group possess a shorter male palp without a patellar apophysis, but with a distinct dorsal apophysis on the tibia.
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Tmeticus affinis, T. nigriceps.
Tmeticus affinis (Blackwall, 1855)
Description: Thoracic part of carapace yellow-brown, cephalic part in front of cervical furrow blackish. However, according to Locket & Millidge (1953) the carapace is reddish-brown, rather darker in male. Locket & Millidge (1953) make no mention of a two-coloured carapace so perhaps uniformly coloured carapaces occur as well. Male chelicerae with a large warty tooth anteriorly and several small warts on front and sides, these are less pronounced in females. Sternum orange-yellow with many hairs. Legs yellow-brown, Tm I 0.65-0.75. Abdomen black with four distinct sigilla. Male palpal patella and tibia elongated while tarsus and palpal organs are relatively small . Size: Female 2.5-3.0 mm; male 2.5-2.7 mm. Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands?, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Genus: Trematocephalus Dahl, 1886
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Trematocephalus cristatus, T. obscurus.
Trematocephalus cristatus (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Genus: Trichoncus Simon, 1884
There are 18 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Trichoncus affinis, T. aurantiipes, T. auritus, T. gibbulus, T. hackmani, T. helveticus, T. hirtus, T. monticola, T. patrizii, T. pinguis, T. saxicola, T. scrofa, T. similipes, T. sordidus, T. trifidus, T. varipes, T. vasconicus.
Trichoncus hackmani Millidge, 1955
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central, Northern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Trichopterna Kulczynski, 1894
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Trichopterna cito, T. cucurbitina, T. krueperi.
Trichopterna cito (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Troxochrus Simon, 1884
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Troxochrus cirrifrons, T. rugulosus, T. scabriculus.
Troxochrus scabriculus (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Typhochrestus Simon, 1884
There are 21 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Typhochrestus acoreensis, T. alticola, T. berniae, T. bifurcatus, T. bogarti, T. brucei, T. chiosensis, T. digitatus, T. dubius, T. epidaurensis, T. fortunatus, T. hesperius, T. inflatus, T. longisulcus, T. montanus, T. paradorensis, T. pygmaeus, T. sardus, T. simoni, T. sireti, T. sylviae.
Typhochrestus digitatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Walckenaeria Blackwall, 1833
Characters of genus: The members of this genus range in size from 1.35 to 4.0 mm (Millidge 1983). The male carapace in most European species is elevated, often into large lobes or modified in some other way. However, in a few species such as in W. dysderoides the male head is only slightly domed behind the eyes. Where there is a lobe this carries the posterior median eyes (Millidge 1983). In other species the male carapaces carries a projection, often furnished with hairs which may be clavate or furcated. More rarely is the carapace of the female elevated, such as in W. acuminata which carries a conical elevation. The sternum is longer than wide with the posterior end pointed between coxae IV (Locket & Millidge 1953). The pedicel is distinctly sclerotized and is quite conspicuous in some species. The abdomen is without a scutum and is unicoloured in most species, usually greyish black but occasionally light grey or yellowish brown. Tibia I and II carries two spines while III and IV carries one in the European species. Legs are unicoloured in most species, often bright orange or reddish orange. Some species have contrastingly blackened tibiae on anterior leg pairs. Spines are weak, particularly on legs I and II in males (Millidge 1983). All metatarsi with a trichobothrium, Tm I variable, ranging from 0.39-0.76 in British species (Roberts 1987). The male palpal organs are of similar form and differences are not discernible with a hand lens. Females of a few species possess characteristic epigynes which makes them identifiable in the field using a hand lens. Other characteristics of the genus (not visible with a lens) include the strongly pectinate and large superior tarsal claws of legs I and II, clear transverse striae on the lateral faces of the chelicerae and the acuminate tarsus of the female palp (Locket & Millidge 1953, Millidge 1983). The European members of the genus have been reviewed by Wunderlich (1972) and the North American by Millidge (1983).
There are 72 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Walckenaeria acuminata, W. afur, W. alba, W. alticeps, W. angelica, W. angustifrons, W. antica, W. atrotibialis, W. bicolor (nomen dubium), W. brucei, W. camposi, W. capito, W. castanea, W. cavernicola, W. christae, W. cirriceps, W. clavicornis, W. claviloba, W. coniceps, W. corniculans, W. cretaensis, W. cucullata, W. cuspidata, W. cuspidata brevicula, W. cuspidata obsoleta, W. cyprusensis, W. dalmasi, W. denisi, W. dulciacensis, W. dysderoides, W. erythrina, W. exilis (nomen dubium), W. extraterrestris, W. furcillata, W. fusca, W. fuscocephala, W. gomerensis, W. grandis, W. hamus, W. hierropalma, W. incisa, W. incompleta, W. inflexa, W. insperata, W. karpinskii, W. kazakhstanica, W. kochi, W. korobeinikovi, W. languida, W. lepida, W. mengei, W. mitrata, W. monoceros, W. nodosa, W. nudipalpis, W. obtusa, W. palmierro, W. parva (nomen dubium), W. picetorum, W. pinoensis, W. plumata, W. pyrenaea, W. simplex, W. striata, W. stylifrons, W. suspecta, W. teideensis, W. unicornis, W. vafra (nomen dubium), W. vigilax, W. vilbastae, W. westringi.
Walckenaeria acuminata Blackwall, 1833
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Walckenaeria alticeps (Denis, 1952)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary?, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Walckenaeria antica (Wider, 1834)
Description: Carapace brown to blackish with darker striae visible in lighter coloured specimens. Males with bifid lobe, the anterior being smallest and carrying a pair of horns. Legs yellow brown to orange brown with tibiae I and II darkened. sometimes practically black. Abdomen grey to black. Tm I 0.5-0.55 (Locket & Millidge 1953). Size: Female 2.0-2.5 mm; male 1.8-2.3 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Walckenaeria atrotibialis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1878)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult female.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Walckenaeria clavicornis (Emerton, 1882)
Description: Carapace brownish, usually fairly dark brown with faint darker striae. The male carapace modified by possessing a small upward directed protuberance slightly bifurcate distally. Legs orange to orange brown. Tm I 0.5-0.56 (Roberts 1987). Abdomen grey to black. Size: Female 2.4-2.7 mm; male 2.1-2.4 mm. Range: Austria, Faroe Islands, Finland, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Norway (Svalbard & Jan Mayen), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Novaya Zemlya)?, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male, note characteristic shaped cusp projecting from the head.
Walckenaeria cucullata (C. L. Koch, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Walckenaeria cuspidata Blackwall, 1833
Description: Carapace orange brown to dark brown with faint darker striae. The male carapace modified by possessing a small forward directed cusp-like protuberance, which bears a tuft of hairs. Legs orange to orange brown, contrasting with the legs and the abdomen as in most species of the genus. Tm I 0.5-0.55 (Roberts 1987). Abdomen grey to black. Size: Female 2.4-2.9 mm; male 2.3-2.6 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Walckenaeria dysderoides (Wider, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland)?, Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Walckenaeria furcillata (Menge, 1869)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Walckenaeria grandis (Wunderlich, 1992)
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Palp and epigyne.
Walckenaeria kochi (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Walckenaeria nodosa O. P.-Cambridge, 1873
Description: Carapace brown to dark brown. The male carapace modified by possessing a small knob-like protuberance which is without hairs. Legs orange to orange brown. Tm I 0.44-0.50 (Roberts 1987). Abdomen grey or brownish grey. Size: Female 1.8-2.2 mm; male 1.5-2.1 mm. Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Walckenaeria nudipalpis (Westring, 1851)
Description: Carapace dark brown with somewhat rugose thoracic area. Male head only slightly raised in ocular region. Legs orange to orange brown . Tm I 0.47-0.54 (Roberts 1987). Abdomen grey to black. Size: Female 2.5-3.2 mm; male 2.5-3.0 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Walckenaeria unicornis O. P.-Cambridge, 1861
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.