- filtered for Great Britain (Mainland)
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Clubionidae (Foliage Spiders)
Biology: The Clubionidae is relatively species rich encompassing 537 species in 14 genera. They range in size from small to medium (2,5-12 mm body size). The species are found at ground level in open habitats but many species inhabit foliage, branches, and stems of trees. Clubionids spend the daytime in saclike retreats with or without openings. The retreats are placed in folded or rolled up leaves, behind loose bark, under stones or under other objects on the ground. Clubionids leave their retreats during the night to hunt prey as active free-living hunters using no web or snares. They are swift runners having good footing to slippery surfaces due to the adhesive properties of the claw tufts. They take their prey by moving upon it and seizing it with the strong and toothed chelicerae. The female spins a silken sac in which she guards her egg sack. These sacs are larger than retreats and if placed in foliage they are often constructed by bending the leaves together to form a cavity, which is then spun together and sealed with plenty of whitish silk.
Characters of family: The clubionids are 8-eyed, ecribellate spiders possessing two tarsal claws. The species superficially resemble members of the Gnaphosidae, but the anterior spinners of the clubionids are conical and the posterior median eyes are circular. The sexes are quite similar with the males slightly smaller and often with more elongate and slender chelicers as well as longer legs. The eyes are uniform in size, arranged close to the anterior edge of the carapace in two fairly wide rows each with four eyes. The posterior row is slightly wider than the anterior. The carapace is ovoid, clearly longer than wide and with short, shallow fovea. However, in some species fovea is absent. The sternum is distinctly margined in some species. The chelicers are rather long and stout and the fang furrows are provided with teeth both pro- and retromarginally. Some males have strongly developed chelicerae with a long fang. Also, in many species the chelicers are conspicuously dark. Endites are longer than wide and without the depression seen in gnaphosids. The endites are furnished with a brush of setae (scopulae) on distal end to improve grip of prey. The labium is longer than wide. The body is carried close to the substratum on moderately long, strong legs with normal prograde orientation. The legs are provided with two tarsal claws with dense claw tufts and scopulae giving good adhesion to slippery surfaces such as leaves. The tibia and metatarsi have one, two, or more pairs of spines ventrally. Some species have legs I the longest while other species legs IV. The abdomen is oval often tapering towards the spinners. Males sometimes have a small scutum. The abdomen usually uniformly coloured except for darker cardiac mark. Sometimes there are darker markings such as a median line or chevrons in the same colours as the cardiac mark. The anterior spinners of the clubionids are conical and contiguous and all three pairs form a compact cluster. The spiracle is situated close to the spinners. Clubionids are entelegyne spiders having the genital groove with its openings to the internal genitalia covered by a well-sclerotized plate (epigastric scutum), which also bears the paired copulatory openings. The spermathecae are often visible through the integument. The male palp has a retrolateral tibial apophysis. The shape of the apophysis varies greatly between species and is an important morphological character when identifying the species under the stereomicroscope.
Genus: Clubiona Latreille, 1804 - Leaf curling sac spiders
Biology: Members of this genus spin sack-like retreats either open or closed at the ends under loose bark, under objects on the ground, and in rolled leaves or in folded grass leaves. Nocturnal spiders that spend the daytime in the retreats which are also used for mating, oviposition, moulting and wintering. They do not use webs for prey catching. Some species are difficult to identify without microscopic examination of the genitals.
Characters of genus: Compact, small to medium sized spiders with oval cephalothorax and slightly protruding, broad head. There are two rows of eyes, the eyes of the posterior row widely set apart. It may appear as there are six eyes in the front row since the laterals of both rows are fairly close together. Anterior row recurved. Posterior row straight or slightly recurved. Fovea short, dark and shallow but quite indistinct in species with relatively dense silky hairing on carapace. Labium longer than wide. Maxilla with scopulae. Endites without a transverse or oblique depression. Legs long with leg IV longest. Tarsi with conspicuous scopulae, two-clawed (claws long). Abdomen elongate with sparse to rather dense coverage of silky hairs depending on species. Hues of yellow, orange and brown are the prevailing body colours, sometimes the cardiac mark is darker. A few species have the cardiac mark followed by chevrons. Anterior spinners conical and and situated close together or contiguous. The two sexes do not differ much. Compared to females, males are slightly smaller, often with chelicerae longer and more tapering and the legs are relatively longer.
Clubiona brevipes Blackwall, 1841
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, spinners.
Female.
Female.
Clubiona caerulescens L. Koch, 1867
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Clubiona comta C. L. Koch, 1839
Description: The abdomen has a reddish- brown cardiac mark followed by chevrons. This is a commom species which only resemble C. genevensis, a much rarer species in Denmark. The same abdominal markings are also characteristic for C. corticalis, but the pattern is made of a darker colour and this species is almost twice as big as C. compta. Size: Female 3.5-6 mm; male 3-5 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: Trees and bushes, alse under bark. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia, North Africa (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female, sternum and mouthparts.
Female, epigyne.
Female, spinners.
Clubiona corticalis (Walckenaer, 1802)
Description: Same abdominal markings as in C. compta, but darker and the spider is much larger. The distictive appearance separates this species from all other Clubiona species. Size: Female 7-10 mm; male 6-10 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: Under the bark of trees, sometimes retreats of many specimens close together. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Male.
Male.
Male, abdominal markings.
Male.
Clubiona diversa O. P.-Cambridge, 1862
Description: Rather plumb Clubiona with the sexes almost similar. The abdomen is yellowish-orange, except a reddish midline and reddish tip. Size: Female 4-5 mm; male 3-4 mm. Maturity: All year. Habitat: I Denmark this species is fairly common in coastal dunes and heathland. In Europe also chalk grassland, and boggy areas. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Clubiona facilis O. P.-Cambridge, 1910
Range: Great Britain (Mainland) (introduced) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: England (introduced) (Platnick 10.0).
Clubiona frisia Wunderlich & Schuett, 1995
Description: The species has recently been described as a new species from C. similis which does not occur in Denmark. Except for a sligtly darker cardiac mark, C. frisia is of the same colour as a peeled potato, and thus the lightest coloured Clubiona species occurring in Denmark. The bluish tinge seen on one of the pictures below is probably an artefact caused by the flash light. Size: Female 5-7 mm; male 5-6 mm. Maturity: All year. Habitat: Marram tussocks along coasts. Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male spinners.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Clubiona genevensis L. Koch, 1866
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia?, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Clubiona juvenis Simon, 1878
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Clubiona lutescens Westring, 1851
Description: Rather dark with the abdomen uniformely coloured yellowish to reddish-brown. Male much slimmer than female. Similar general appearance to C. terrestris. Size: Female 6-8 mm; male 4-6 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: On herb vegetation, trees and bushes in damp forests and meadows, also found in bogs. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Clubiona neglecta O. P.-Cambridge, 1862
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female, spinners.
Clubiona norvegica Strand, 1900
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Clubiona pallidula (Clerck, 1757)
Description: Largest and darkest species in Denmark. The abdomen is dark purplish-brown without markings. Size: Female 7-11 mm; male 6-8 mm. Maturity: Summer and autumn. Habitat: Bushes and trees in forests, parks and gardens. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Clubiona phragmitis C. L. Koch, 1843
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Clubiona pseudoneglecta Wunderlich, 1994
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Moldova, Netherlands, Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Clubiona reclusa O. P.-Cambridge, 1863
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Eggsack.
Female.
Female with eggsack inside chamber made of silk lining curled fern leaf.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Clubiona rosserae Locket, 1953
Range: France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Clubiona stagnatilis Kulczynski, 1897
Description: Rather pale reddish-brown or yellowish-brown species with slightly darker cardiac mark. Rather dense pubescence. Head seem relatively narrow compared to most Clubiona species. Size: Female 6-8 mm; male 5-7 mm. Maturity: All year. Habitat: In a variety of mainly damp situations, typically among low vegetation. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female with parasitic fungi.
Female with parasitic fungi.
Female with parasitic fungi.
Clubiona subsultans Thorell, 1875
Description: Goldenbrown abdomen with with well-defined, dark cardiac mark. Size: Female 5-7 mm; male 4-7 mm. Maturity: All year. Habitat: Under loose bark, in moss and under stones in open forests. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdomen.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Clubiona subtilis L. Koch, 1867
Description: A rather small species with the cephalothorax much darker than the abdomen which is yellowish-brown. Sometimes the cardiac mark is contrasting reddish-brown, at other timer it much less well-defined. Size: Female 3-4.5 mm; male 2.5-3 mm. Maturity: Males spring and summer, females all year. Habitat: Among mos and low vegetation in damp, mainly coastal habitats. Range: Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Clubiona terrestris Westring, 1851
Description: Abdomen reddish-brown with darker cardiac mark. Carapace is yellow-brown with head region slightly darker. Size: Female 6-7 mm; male 5-6 mm. Maturity: Males spring and summer, females all year. Habitat: In a variety of mainly dry situations, including gardens. In leaf litter, under stones and under loose bark. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Clubiona trivialis C. L. Koch, 1843 - Northern sac-spider
Description: Female carapace yellowish or light orange brown. Legs light yellow-brown. Chelicerae brown. Dorsum of abdomen uniformly reddish brown sometimes with a slightly darker or lighter cardiac mark. Abdomen with short, light pubescence. Spinners yellow. Legs and sternum light brownish, in recently moulted specimens pale grey. Male similar to female but on the average 0.5 mm shorter. The palpal tibial apophysis is formed like a spade and is blackish. Size: Female 3.6-4.6 mm; male 3.3-3.9 mm. Maturity: Adult males and females have been taken almost year round with peak from April to September. Habitat: Foliage of mainly pines and at the basis of low deciduous shrubs such as heather. The species is also found at ground level under stones and in leaf litter. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Juvenile.