- filtered for Bosnia/Herzegowina
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jřrgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Agelenidae (Funnelweb Weavers)
Biology: This is a fairly small family, which is represented with a little more than 500 species in 41 genera. They range in size from medium to large (4.5 to at least 20 mm body size). Most species are living on sheet webs with a funnel or tubular retreat where the spider sits ready. When prey land on the web the spider rush out over it always in an upright position and grab the prey, which is then dragged back to the retreat for consumption. The web is usually built in low vegetation and bushes but some species inhabit the hollows of tree trunks, caves, and houses. Some indoor species are now almost cosmopolitan in distribution.
Characters of family: The agelenids belong to the group of entelegyne, ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. The members of the family are characterized by the often very long, two-segmented posterior spinnerets, which taper toward the tip. The long spinners are visible even when the spiders are viewed from above. Another character for the family is the tarsal trichobothria, which are arranged, in a single row and increases in length toward the distal end. However, this character is shared with species that have been transferred to other genera in recent times. The carapace is characterized by often having the head (cephalic region) narrow and very clearly separated from the wider thoracic region. The eyes are equal sized and arranged in 2 rows of 4. The curvature of the posterior row of eyes is characteristic for some of the commoner European genera with some having this eye row recurved, straight or procurved. Sternum is heart-shaped and sometimes with markings which may aid species identification. Labium is as wide as long. Many species have long slender spinose legs and are capable of fast runs. The abdomen is oval and tapering posteriorly usually with species-specific colour patterns dorsally in various shades of brown and grey. Both the carapace and the abdomen are often densely covered by plumose hairs but this is only visible when using a lens or stereomicroscope. Epigyne is often large but the differences between related species sometimes small and a stereomicroscope is therefore required for proper identification. The male palp has a tibial apophysis. The shape of the apophysis is sometimes visible with a lens facilitating reliable identification of live males. In this respect it is an advantage to confine the specimen in a glass tube.
Genus: Histopona Thorell, 1869
Characters of genus: The posterior row of eyes in Histopona is slightly recurved.
Histopona conveniens (Kulczynski, 1914)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bosnia-Hercegovina (Platnick 10.0).
Histopona dubia (Absolon & Kratochvíl, 1933)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina (Platnick 10.0).
Histopona laeta (Kulczynski, 1897)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Histopona luxurians (Kulczynski, 1897)
Range: Austria, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia?, Slovenia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria, Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Malthonica Simon, 1898
Malthonica annulata (Kulczynski, 1913)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Montenegro (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Pseudotegenaria Caporiacco, 1934
Pseudotegenaria bayeri (Kratochvíl, 1934)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Greece (Crete)?, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bosnia-Hercegovina, Montenegro (Platnick 10.0).
Pseudotegenaria bosnica (Kratochvíl & Miller, 1940)
Range: Albania, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Textrix Sundevall, 1833
Characters of genus: The members of this genus have the posterior row of eyes strongly recurved with the medials larger than the laterals. The narrow head is clearly set off from the thorax. The species may resemble wolf spiders as they are sometimes seen running about in sunshine, but the long and segmented posterior spinners are very noticeable and give them away as funnel web weavers. There are two species in northern and central Europe, of which one occur in Denmark.
Textrix chyzeri de Blauwe, 1980
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Hungary (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).